Oral and Written Literature | Form Five and Six

A grandfather reading novel while carrying his grandchild.

Topic Objectives

1. Concept of literature.

2. Major types of literature.

3. Relationship between language and literature.

4. Major elements of literature.

Concept of literature

Literature is a work of art expressed in words, using languages creatively to express human realities.

Approaches used to define literature

(i) Criteria approach

This approach provide criteria that must be met by all texts so that they are called literature.

(ii) Prototypical approach which focuses on a particular good example of literature to which other examples bear resemblance.

It is suggested that prototypical literary works are:

- written texts,

- marked by careful use of language, including features such as metaphors, well-turned phrases, elegant syntax, rhyme, alliteration and meter,

- in a literary genre (poetry, prose, fiction, or drama)

- read aesthetically,

- Intended to be read aesthetically,

- contain many weak implicatures and

- are deliberately somewhat open to interpretation.

The usual approach to define a word in English is to provide a list of criteria, which must be met. For example,  bird may be defined as an animal which has feathers, wings and lays eggs. If an animal meets all of these criteria, it is a bird; if it does not then it is not a bird.

A different approach to the meaning of words, generally called the prototypical approach, focuses not on a list of criteria which must be met by each example, but on an established prototype, a particular good example of the word, to which other examples of the words bear some resemblance.

Therefore, literature can be defined as an oral or written art form that uses language creatively to produce meaning.


Study the following definitions of literature and show to which way of defining literature each of them belongs:

(a) Literature is a product of the human imagination that uses language creatively to reflect man’s relationship with his or her environment (Shakespeare).

(b) Literature is a mirror that reflects the reality of the society (Nkwera).

(c) Literature is the use of language in a peculiar way (different from normal language use) in order to reflect social realities through artistic use of language (Gibbon).

(d) Literature is imaginative and creative writing which uses language and arbitrary assemblage of devices.

(e) Literature is a work of art which uses language creatively to express human realities (the universe is the source of the realities).

(f) Literature is the expression of someone’s emotions (feelings).

Types of literature

Oral literature

Oral literature is a form of literature that is passed down from generation to generation through spoken word. It includes myths, legends, folk-tales, epics, and songs. Oral literature is often anonymous, as the stories are constantly being adapted and changed by the people who tell them.

Written literature

Written literature is a form of literature that is recorded in writing. It includes novels, short stories, poems, plays, essays, and articles. Written literature is typically attributed to an individual author, and it is not subject to the same changes as oral literature.

Major forms (genres) of oral literature

(i) Narratives

These are presented through narration in prose, that is, in ordinary language and in story form.

Narratives include:

- Epic: it is usually a long narrative which may be in either prose or poetic form; it recounts the life of a person who is seen by the people of his/her community to have contributed much to its being and existence. Examples include narratives on Sundiata (Mali), Shaka (Zulu), Ng’wanamalundi (Sukuma), Mugasha and Ruzika both of Haya and Fumo Lyongo (Swahili).

- Myth: a traditional story, especially one concerning the early history of a people or explaining a natural or social phenomenon, and typically involving supernatural beings or events.

They are special accounts for gods like Zeus for the Greeks, Osiris for the Egyptians and Obatala for the Yoruba.

Sometime myth are based on story which may or may not be true. This can even be true of recent historical figures like Dedan Kimathi. He led historical fight against the colonialist, but people began to attribute supernatural powers to him that he could crawl for 30 miles or turn himself into a white man.

Legend: is a traditional story or group of stories told about a particular person or place. This narrative is similar to a myth. The difference is that the characters are human beings, but humans of higher stature or status like kings and great warriors; they are usually historical beings who are believed to have lived in the community concerned.

Fable: this is a brief story, usually with animals as characters. It teaches a moral lesson about life. Fables are sometimes called ‘animal tales’. fables always provide an oral lesson, for example, Kalulu the Hare.

Anecdote: this is a short amusing or interesting story about an incident or person. It may be real or fictitious.

(ii) Sung and recited/recitative forms (oral poetry): these literary forms are presented or rendered to the audience through singing or recitation. They include songs, poems and recitation of different kinds. Some of these examples are work songs, ceremony songs, cradle songs, praise poems, heroic poems, elegies, lullabies, dirges and chants.

-Lullaby: this is a soothing song or piece of music that is usually sung to children. In some societies, lullabies are often used to develop communication skills, to show emotional intent, to maintain infants and to regulate behaviour, to make babies sleep. These songs are normally short and repetitive.

- Dirge: this is a sombre song or lament showing one’s grief. It is usually sung or performed at a funeral. Dirges are also called songs (or hymns) of grief or lamentation especially when they accompany funeral or memorial rites. They are usually slow, solemn and mournful piece of music.

Chant: a chant is a player song. They are composed of religious matters.

Cradle song: a cradle song is sung when a baby is born. Cradle songs are intended to encourage a woman when giving birth to a baby. That is why they are sometimes called ‘birth songs.’

(iii) Sayings: these are short verbal expression, including proverbs, riddles, idioms and tongue-twisters.

- Proverbs: a proverb is a short wise (philosophical) saying meant to deliver a moral lesson. “He who laughs last laughs longest.” This proverb means that one should not celebrate too soon. The situation may change.

- Riddle: A riddle is a puzzle, which tests the mind (intelligence) of the hearer. Riddles are usually presented in statement (a question) and answer (a response) form. They normally have two sides; the settler and the respondent. “I am tall when I am young and I am short when I am old.” (statement). “A candle.” (response).

Idiom: An idiom is a group of words (phrases or sentences) used in language community to express specific meanings. The meanings are not literal idioms are also sayings whose meanings are not known to all language users. “Hit the nail on the head.” (Be exactly right about something).

Tongue-twisters: a tongue-twister is a sentence, statement or a phrase which is difficult to utter, especially among young children or learners of a new language. A Kiswahili language example may be Kale ka kuku kangu kakubwa keupe kako kwako? An example from English may be “She sells seashelss by the seashore!” tongue-tweisterss are word-games. They help us improve pronunciation and sharpen our fluency.

(b)Written literature

This is the literature presented in the written form.

It started after the invention of writing.

It has four main genres: poetry, fiction, non-fiction and drama.


This is a kind of literature that deals with fictitious or imaginative events, characters and settings in the form of prose.

It is a product of the imagination of the writer or author.

- Prose

Prose is any kind of writing that is narrative in nature and is not in verse or stanza form.

Prose fiction includes novels, short stories and novellas.

A nove can be defined as an extended work of prose fiction. Ayi Kwei Armah’s The Beautiful Ones are Not Yet Born, Chinua Achebe’s A Man of the People are novels.

A short story is usually shorter than a novel. It may be read from beginning to end without stopping or in a single day. It usually focuses on one or two main characters facing a single problem or conflict. Ngugi’s Meeting in the Dark is an example.

A novella is a fictitious narrative story consisting of aspects of the novel, only that it is shorter than a novel and longer than a short story. It usually focusses on one incident or issue with one or two main characters, and takes place at a single location. Novela does not have a complex plot. Examples of novellas are Mabala’s Mabala the Farmer and La Guma’s A walk in the Night.

- Dramatic literature (or drama)

This is a literary genre that tells a story though action and dialogue.

If drama is written to be performed on stage by actors, it is called ‘a play’.

Types of drama

Tragedy and comedy are the two main types of drama. However there are other types, including tragic-comedy and melodrama.

Tragedy is a play which is considered to be serious, that is, involving bad experience of one’s own making in which the hero undergoes suffering and even death. Examples are Francis Imbuga’s Betrayal in the City and Omtata’s Lwanda Magere.

Comedy is a dramatic work of art that is intended to be funny and humorous. It usually ends in a peaceful resolution of the main conflict.

Tragic-comedy is a dramatic work of art that combines the element of tragedy and comedy, but here, the hero or heroine does not end in great suffering or death.

Melodrama is a drama which is full of exciting events and in which the characters and emotions seem too exaggerated to be true or real. Originally, it was accompanied by a melody,hence the name melody drama (melodrama).

Historical drama is a type of drama which draws its material from the history of a particular society but usually contains some elements of tragedy and comedy. The Trial of Dedan Kimathi by Ngugi wa Thiong’o and Micere Mugo and Ibrahim Hussein’s Kinjekitile are examples of Historical dramas.

Drama uses the following techniques:


This s a conversation between characters.


This is a speech made by a character when he or she is alone on stage, in which a character expresses her or his thoughts and feelings aloud for the benefit fo the audience.


This is a direct address to the audience by a character. The other characters do not hear what is being said.

Stage direction

These are the instructions/notes included in a play or drama which describe how the work should be performed or staged. They show the description of the stage lighting, music, sound effects, costumes, as well as the emotions or actions of the actors on the stage. These are normally typed in italics and enclosed in parentheses or square brackets.

- Poetry

Poetry is a literary composition in metrical form with the arrangement of lines in special patterns. Good example of poetry are Summons and Selected poems. Poetry is not synonymous to poem. A poem is just part of poetry. Other subclasses of poetry are songs, lyrics, etc.

Poems (like songs) are written in the form of lines called verses and stanzas.

Types of poems are: Haiku, sonnet, lyric and narrative poems.

Poems may be categorised in terms of form, content and number of verses.

Types of poems according to form

There are traditional and modern poems. However, on the basis of the number of verses, poems are divided into sonnet and ballad, among others.

Traditional poems

These are poems which often have rhyme and regular rhythm and a set number of verses such as sonnets, haikus, ballads and blank verses. For example;

- sonnet consists of fourteen verses with the same number of beats and a rhyming pattern.

- Haiku is a traditional Japanese poem which consists of seventeen syllables only, divided into three lines.

- Ballad is a poem which tells a simple story with rhyme and short stanzas, normally of four lines. It should be noted that traditional poems are very few in the present day literature.

Modern poems

These do not follow the rules of rhyme, rhythm, number of syllables or equal number of verses. They are also called ‘free verse poems.’

They are free as a poet can write one-stanza poem with any number of verses which may vary in length and end with different sounds. They also do not have regular rhythm but the poet still use rhythm in different ways.


In groups, write one traditional poem and one modern poem on Malaria. Observe the rules of each.

Types of poems based on content

Narrative poems

These tell a story. They normally have all the elements of a story such as characters, narrator, setting, plot and dialogue. A good example of a narrative poem is ‘Building the Nation’ by Henry Barlow.

Lyric poems

These express the feelings of the poet such as love, fear or hatred. Most modern poems are lyric, for example, ‘The Dying Child’ from the Selected Poems.

Descriptive poems

These describe a particular subject (a person, animal or inanimate object) often in detail. They are rich in imagery and adjectives, for example, ‘I love you my gentle one.’

Elegy poems

Elegy poems express grief. They are poems about the death of an individual. Sometimes they are lyric poems that mourn the dead.

Epic poems

These are long narrative and serious poems about heroic people. An epic poem may cover a whole book recounting the deeds of a legendary character or the history of a particular hero or heroine.

Didactic poems

These give a message to the reader, rather than trying to appeal to his or her feelings or imagination. A good example is a poem with political messages; for example, ‘Frontline’ which inspires people to join the fight for freedom.

Ode poems

They are lyric in nature, and address and celebrate a person, place, thing or idea.


In groups, compose two lyric poems and two didactic poems. Share them with other members of the class.

Non fiction

This is a kind of literature that deals with real life materials or events. The work of non-fiction are expected to be read in the same way as fiction. The difference is that fiction focuses on imaginary events, while non-fiction concentrates on facts.

Types of non-fiction writings

1. Autobiography

This is account of one’s own life.

In an autobiography, a person tells the story about an important event or tell his/her whole life story from the beginning to the time of writing the work.

Autobiography are almost always written in the first person point of view.

Form of autobiography:

- Personal narratives

- journals

- Memoirs

- Diaries

- letters

Example of autobiographical novels include The African Child by Camara Laye and Black Docker by Sembene Ousmane.

2. Biography

This is a story of someone’s life and experiences written by someone else.

In biographies, the author may choose to interview the subject and gather information from other sources. The subject of biographies are often famous people.

An example of biography is Nyerere of Tanzania written by William Edgett Smith.

3. Essay

This is a short piece of writing through which the writer shares his or her point of view about a certain subject.

It may also be defined as a short work of non-fiction that usually deals with a single subject.

Essay may be formal and informal.

A formal essay is one which is well organised, thoroughly researched and serious in tone.

An informal essay is a non-fiction essay that follows no specific structure and is based solely on the author's ideas and reflections.

4. Article

An article is a piece of writing written for a large audience. The main motive behind writing an article is that it should be published in either newspapers or magazines or journals so as to make some difference to the world.

Articles are always seen in newspapers, magazines and reference books like encyclopaedias, almanac and atlases. These days online platforms also provides room for featuring articles.


1. From the knowledge and experience that you already have about literature, which are the characteristics features of writing that can be called literature among the following:

a. Creativity

b. Permanence

c. Amenable to constant improvisation

d. Artistic record of life and events

e. Appealing to emotions

f. Imagination playing a vital role

g. Vocal and aural elements are important.

h. The role of memory is crucial.

i. Presence of the author

j. Performance based

k. Rooted in specific time

l. Changing shape constantly

2. Write briefly on the aspects that differentiate ‘oral’ from ‘written’ literature.

Language and literature

In literature, language is used in a special way in order to entertain and educate at the same time.

Special way of using language by literature as opposed to ordinary language

Ordinary language is the language used in day-to-day communication and conversations. It is used in advertisements, dialogues, instructions and many others.

Literary language is used in literature as explained:

1. Violation and deviation from the generally accepted rules

This is the use of poetic licence, which allows literary artists to break the rules of language in many different ways such as going against syntactic rules, semantic rules, morphological rules and phonological rules. This is especially used in poetry.

2. Use of archaism

Archaism is an old English that is rarely used these days such as ‘thou’ and ‘wilt’.

3. Borrowing of linguistic features

Using words from other languages or elements that are non-literary, for example, Okot P’ Bitek in Song of Lawino.

4. Employment of literary devices

This is the use of figures of speech like irony, metaphors, personification, alliteration and similes.

Literary language still uses a lot of ordinary language especially in prose and dialogues. However, writers use special language to make it more powerful. Thus, it can use unfamiliar words which have a very precise meaning.

The uniqueness of literary language is seen in the following aspects

Terseness and rhythm

Literary language, especially the one used in poetry, is generary terse. It means that more information is given in a small context. Sometimes literary language is bound with latent thoughts. For example, ‘Eat more’ by Joe Corrie, is a poem which is characterised by torseness and regular rhythm features. Ordinary language does not tend to be terse.


The statement: “The child is the father of a man” can be used in ordinary language as well as in literary works. However in literature, ambiguity is a remarkable feature created for special effects. In ordinary language, ideas and thoughts are conveyed in a more straightforward way.

Deviant language

Deviant language refers to any language use that deviates from the standard norms of a particular language or dialect. This can include deviations in grammar, syntax, vocabulary, pronunciation, or semantics.

Various devices are used to make the language different from ordinary language. Language deviations are made for two main reasons: novelty and removal of the restrictions of normal language. The deviation may be made at different levels, including phonological, morphological, lexical and semantic levels.

Creativity and novelty

The term creativity refers to the artistic way of using language. It is greatly associated with poetry, prose and drama.

Metre and rhyme

Metre is formed by patterning stressed and unstressed syllables in a poetic line, while rhyme is the correspondence of sounds ate the end of words or lines. Metre is a basic rhythmic structure in poetry. Therefore it produces some musical effects. Apart from metre, rhyme is very important in traditional poetry. Rhyme is not used in ordinary language.

Figurative language

The most important feature of a literary or poetic language is its use of various types of figures of speech. Among the figures of speech that are commonly used are irony, similes, metaphors and personification. Although these figures of speech are greatly used in literature, they have their roots in ordinary language.

Relationship between language and literature

1. Language as the Tool

Literature is the art of using language to convey thoughts, emotions, and narratives. Authors employ the nuances of language to create imagery, evoke emotions, and communicate complex ideas.

2. Language Shapes Form

The structure and form of literary works, whether poetry, prose, or drama, are shaped by the rules and possibilities of the language in which they are written. Different languages offer unique stylistic features and rhetorical devices.

3. Reflecting Culture through Language

Literature often serves as a reflection of the culture from which it emerges. The language used in literature carries cultural nuances, idioms, and linguistic elements that contribute to the richness and authenticity of the work.

4. Literature as a Language Record

Literature provides a historical record of a language's evolution. It captures linguistic changes, vocabulary shifts, and alterations in grammatical structures over time.

5. Literary Innovation

Literature often pushes the boundaries of language, introducing new words, phrases, and expressions. Writers may experiment with language to create innovative literary forms, contributing to linguistic evolution. For instance, the word "robot" was first coined by Czech playwright Karel ńĆapek in his 1920 play R.U.R.

Elements of literature

The phrase ‘element of literature’ refers to the constituent parts of a literary work: a poem, a novel or a play.

There are two elements of literature: form and content.

Content is what the writer says.

Form is how the writer says it.

Each of these basic elements of literature has its own sub-components or elements.


The sub-components of form are given below:


Setting is the physical and social environment in which the story takes place.

It is both geographical (where) and historical (when). For example, Hawa the Bus Driver is set in Dar es Salaam in the 1980s when people were mainly using Usafiri Dar es Salaam (UDA) for transport.

The setting also refers to the social environment. Is it the time of peace or war? What are the traditions and beliefs of the society concerned? In longer works the setting can often change.


Collect a variety of fictional and non-fictional texts, read them and then write two sentences that show the setting for each. The sentences should show where and when the stories took place.


This is the way a story is told, how one events leads to or causes another event, how characters interact with one another and so on.

The plot of a story may be:

Straight forward: events or incidents are arranged in a chronological order, that is, from the beginning to the end through stages: the beginning (exposition), development (rising action or complication) that intensifies the conflict up to the crisis or highest point (climax), falling action and finally, the denouncement or resolution of the conflict constitute the end.

Exposition is where the writer or author introduce the characters and setting by providing their descriptions and background and shows them in action. It is where the conflict it is introduced as well.

Rising action is built during the story as the conflict gets more and more critical. It is also where the suspense gets stronger as readers want to know how the conflict is resolved.

Climax is the moment of greatest tension or excitement in a story. It is where the conflict reaches the highest point.

Falling action is the beginning of the resolution. It happens as a result of climax and it shows that the story is drawing to close.

Denouement (resolution) is the stage where all the challenges and conflicts are resolved and the story ends.

Plot diagram drawn in triangle shape.
Episodic: the episodic plot shifts focus in terms of setting (place and time), characters and events. A good example is Achebe’s story in A Man of the People. The story moves forwards and backwards in presenting incidents and describing characters and what they do.


Flashbacks are plot techniques used in literary presentations where the chronological sequence of events is interrupted by a scene recalling an event of occurrence from an earlier time. Also literary work can start with an event supposed to be in the end or in the middle or the middle events can be brought in the beginning or to the end.

Flash forward

A flash-forward is the action jumps ahead to the future of the narrative. It takes a narrative forward in time from its current action.

At the heart of any plot, there must be a conflict of some kind; that is, what makes people want to continue reading a story.


Describe the incidents of a story that you have read that correspond to each of the sections of the plot diagram: exposition, rising action, conflict, climax, falling action and resolution.


Characters are the fictitious person, animals or inanimate objects the writer creates.

We learn about their names and appearance, education and work, the way they dress and talk, their ideas, their actions, the problems they face and the way in which they deal with them and what they learn as the story continues.

Characterisation refer to the author’s ability to create characters who are appropriate and who make us feel something about them: love them, or hate them, support them or want them to fail. The way we feel about character(s) is another reason for us to continue read the story.

Some characters are dynamic and change in the course of the story while others are static and do not grow or change as the story progresses.

Types of characters

1. Protagonist

The protagonist is the main character.

The story’s plot centres around this character.

He/she is admired by the leaders.

He/she is most often the ‘hero’ of the story.

Example of protagonists are Okonkwo in Achebe’s Things Fall Apart and Dr Stockmann in Ibsen’s An Enemy of the People.

2. Antagonist

This is a character who is constantly in opposition to the hero or protagonist. Like Peter Stockmann in An Enemy of the People. In the plot the conflict is between the protagonist and the antagonist.

3. Flat character

Is normally presented only in an outline without much individualised detail, and so can readily be described in a single line. A flat character is a character with little to no complex emotions, motivations, or personality. They also don't undergo any kind of change.

4. Round character

A round character is complex, dynamic and can change from negative to positive behaviours and vice verser. We are given enough insights into his/her interior life, hope, fear dreams and desires.

Protagonists are nearly all round characters.


This refers to the words the writer chooses and uses in describing or in telling story (diction) and how he/she uses different figures of speech to make the language more attractive (figurative language).

Figurative language is the use of language where the intended meaning differs from the actual, literal meanings of the words used.

Figures of speech include metaphors, similes, hyperbole, personification, verbal irony and oxymoron.

Literary language also uses dialogue, that is, the way the writer makes his/her characters come alive.

The language used in any literary work can determine the tone of that piece of work.

Tone refer to how the theme is treated in a literary work. Two works may have the same theme, but each may adopt a different tone in dealing with the theme. For example, the tone of a text may be serious, comical, formal, informal, gloomy, joyful, sarcastic or sentimental.

The tone that the writer adopts influences how the reader reads the text. It shows how the reader will feel about the characters and events described.

Tone helps to create the mood of the text and gives life to the story as a whole.


Give examples of texts that illustrate the tone (serious, comical, formal, informal, gloomy, joyful, sarcastic and sentimental) of a literary text. Provide three examples from the text that show the tone. The examples may be direct quotations from the narrative or dialogue or from a commentary on the structure of the text.


This refers to the way the writer puts the whole text together, including the language used, characters and his or her way of telling the story.

There are also other smaller elements of style such as the title. The title of a literary work often carries the general meaning of the work. The write chooses a title which makes the reader want to read his/her work.

Literary devices are tools and techniques that are used to create specific effects within a work.

Summary of elements of form and the devices employed in the respective genres:




Extended writing using sentences and paragraph to present narratives.








Narrative technique



Figures of speech

Dialogue is presented in drama form.








Dramatic techniques

Stage directions

Diction (dialogue, soliloquy, monologue)


Economic use of language is observed using lines and stanzas to present ideas or emotions.









Sound device (Rhme, Rhythm)

Diction (Literary devices/figures of speech


Content refers to what the writer is talking about in the literary work.

Components of content


Theme is the major idea explored in a literary work. Theme is a deeper meaning behind events in a given story. For example, in Achebe’s novel, A Man of the People, the main theme is corruption, while in Things Fall Apart the main theme is the disintegration of African communities as a result of colonisation. However, more than one theme may be treated in a single literary work.

Ways to identify or determine the themes of any piece of work

One should look at the characterisation and the conflicts in the work.

In addition, one can look at the symbols and motifs within the text, especially the symbols and motifs that recur. A symbol is something that stands for another thing and a motif is a recurring idea or an element that has some symbolic significance.

Another way to determine the theme of a literary work is to consider the issues on which the writer takes the position. Examples of the issues commonly found in literature are love and relationships, revenge, justice, betrayal, jealousy, forgiveness, corruption and nepotism.


Choose two literary works which you have read and identify the themes. Then write a brief description of each of the themes and show how the author portrays themes.


Conflict it is the clash of two opposed forces, which move the plot forward.

Forms of conflict

1. Intra-personal conflict

This occurs within the mind of a character as he/she has to make choices in relation to the situation he/she is facing. The choices are often difficult.

2. Inter-personal conflict

This occurs when characters or groups of characters clash.

3. Social conflict

This occurs when a character of a group of characters may get into conflict with his or her community, that is, the society turns against him or her. An Enemy of the People is a good example.

4. Environmental conflict

This is when a character or characters come into conflict with natural forces such as trying to save a community from the floods or getting lost in the forest.


Message is what the writer wants us to learn from the theme. The message reader gets from a literary work is not necessarily the one the author intended to convey.


Philosophy refers to the way the author sees life. It is the author’s position. It enables readers to see how the author tries to address the underlying social, economic and even political problems.

Functions of Literature

1. To educate people: Literature develop people mind by giving them knowledge of the existing social realities.

2. To express peoples culture: Also it can make people abandon bad practices, norms and beliefs.

3. To entertain people: Through reading, watching and listening to literature work, people get pleasure and enjoyment.

4. To influence people: Through reading and watching, people are influenced to act or do the same.

5. To develop language: People improve their vocabulary and grammar by reading different story books and listening to literature works.

6. To criticize the society: Writer points out the weakness of the society so as to find the solution.


1. What did you like best in the chapter? Why?

2. What didn’t you like?

3. What have you gained from this chapter?

4. Can you now define the term literature and describe its types, forms and literary genres?


Ashel, N. (2018). Advanced Level English Language. Dar es Salaam: APE     Network.

John, J. (2012). Advanced English Language Forms 5&6. Dar es Salaam:     Oxford University Press.

Kelly, G. (2000). How to Teach Pronunciation. Edinburgh: Pearson              Education Limited.

Michael, K. (2010). The Real English. Dar es Salaam: Jamana Printers         Limited.

TIE. (2022). English for Advanced Secondary School. Dar es Salaam:          Tanzania Institute of Education.

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