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Colonial Social Services | History Form Three


Colonial social services were the services provided by the colonialists which involved the provision of education, health, water, housing and electrical services.

Colonial Education

Colonial education was provided during the colonial period. Because of poverty and discrimination few Africans were able to join schools.

Objectives of Colonial Education

1. To train Africans so they may be used as administrators for lowest posts e.g. messengers and clerks.

2. Colonial education was introduced to train the sons and daughters of European colonial masters together with Asians.

3. To produce African puppets who were brainwashed to favor the colonial government.

4. To expand the market for manufactured goods from Europe. Learners in school were taught to buy the goods imported in the colonies.

5. To provide agricultural knowledge so as Africans would produce raw materials.

6. Destruction of African culture and spread of European culture. This is because learners of colonial education were supposed to follow European culture like dancing, eating style, language, religion and marriage.

Features of Colonial Education

1. Pyramid shape quality

The number of students who started at lower levels reduced as they went to higher levels.

2. Schools were built in areas with economic importance

For example, in Kenya many schools were built in Kenyan highlands which were a prime area for coffee production.

3. It was Discriminative in nature

There were Asian schools, European schools and others for Africans. Africans received poor education as compared to Europeans and Asians.

4. It was provided to the sons of African chiefs

Sons of peasant never received this education.

5. Schools were built in urban areas

They built their schools by looking where many settlers were living.

6. Education was basically about European culture

For example, training involved the use of foreign languages such as English and French.

Impact of Colonial Education on African Societies

1. It produced educated elites who organized their fellow Africans to fight for independence e.g. J.K Nyerere and Kwame Nkrumah.

2. Colonial education killed Africans' skills at large, these skills remained in theory. Example of those skills are medicine, local industries etc.

3. It produced classes between the educated and those who were not educated.

4. Colonial education led to the destruction of the African culture e.g. on dressing and eating.

5. It transmitted European culture and killed African culture.

6. It extended the market for manufactured goods from Europe. Educated people competed in consumption of manufacturing goods.

Colonial Health Services

Colonial health services they were the health services provided by the colonists to serve the colonists and the African workers. Many hospitals were built.

Objective of colonial health

1. To give medicine to African peasant and labors in order to maintain labour power.

2. To improve the living standard of the whites. This is because they were sure to get treatment when they got sick.

3. To destroy African medication services.

4. To prevent and cure the white imposed diseases such as tuberculosis.

5. To get profit by selling drugs and other medications to the Africans.

6. To provide employment opportunities to the Europeans doctors who were unemployed in Europe.

Provision of water and housing services during the colonial Era

During the colonial Era, colonialists provided water and housing services in their colonies.

The motives for provision of colonial water and housing services

1. To encourage the European settlement

More whites would have agreed to live in Africa because of the availability of housing and water.

2. To find a place for living Africans labor

Many Africans were taken from their homes and sent to the plantation. There they needed housing.

Distribution pattern of water and housing services

Housing and water services were provided in areas occupied by colonialists and African labors. It depended on economic value of an area.

Areas that were not beneficial to whites especially in rural, there was no water or housing.

Africans lived in slums and were scattered in different parts of the capital city. Such slums were made using cheap materials poles, grass and tins. Example in Nairobi Kenya slums were scattered while the Europeans settled in better- drained neighborhoods.

Impact of the provision of colonial water and housing services on African societies

1.   Emergency of slums

Slum emerged due to lack of adequate shelter. In these houses, illicit activities such as the sale of illegal liquor, theft and drug trafficking take place.

2.   Emergence of nationalism

Africans were living a difficult life and were excluded from access to housing and water. This gave them the wrath to unite together to oust the colonists. Mau Mau liberation war is a vivid example.

3.   Spread of diseases

Diseases such as pneumonia, diarrhea and malaria affected Africans due to poor water services and housing available for African communities.

4.   Many Africans died

Many Africans died as a result of poor condition of living in colonial urban centers.

Revision Questions

1.   Why the British in East Africa provided colonial health services to few areas such as settler plantation areas, military camps and cash crops producing areas?

A       To make their subjects support the colonial rule.

B       To keep their subjects wealthier and resistant to diseases.

C       To make their subjects fit for economic production.

D       To make their subject loyal to the colonial state.

E       To stop their subjects from using traditional medicine.

2.   How would you prove that colonial education was an agent of division and racism in colonial Africa?

3.   Outline five objectives of colonial education in Africa.

4.   Colonial education had a positive results to Africa since

A       it prepared the Africans to accept colonialism.

B       it provided elites who served in colonial governments.

C       it created post-colonial leaders.

D       it propagated African culture.

E       it developed African technology.

5.   “Colonial health system was discriminative.” Substantiate this statement by giving six points.

6.   The following was one of the characteristics of colonial education except

A       it based on rudimentary curriculum

B       it segregated the Africans

C       it focused on literacy and numeracy

D       it reflected the interests of the Africans.

E       it was provided to few people.

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Endapo unahitaji mitihani ya kujipima, jipatie hapa.

History Form Four NECTA Examination 2019

Wanafunzi wakifanya mtihani.






(For both school and private candidates)

Time: 3 Hours                                Tuesday, 05th November 2019 p.m.


1.   This paper consists of section A, B and C with a total of nine (9) questions.

2.   Answer all questions in section A and B and three (3) questions into section C.

3.   Cellular phones and any unauthorized materials are not allowed in the examination room.

4.   All drawing should be in pencil.

5.   Write your examination number on every page of your answer booklet(s).

SECTION A (20 Marks)

Answer all questions in this section.

1.   For each of the item (i) – (xv), choose the correct answer from among the given alternatives and write its letter beside the item number in the answer booklet provided.

     i.        What were the major types of oral traditions?

A       Museums and archives

B       Poems and proverbs

C       Historical sites and narration of events

D       Archaeology and museum

E       Cultural practices and narration of events

    ii.        Why is Charles Darwin famous in history?

A       He discovered pebbles and chopping tools.

B       He discovered the fossil of man’s ancestors.

C       He introduced the history of creation.

D       He discovered the remains of old people.

E       He introduced the theory of evolution.

   iii.        What was the most common method of farming in pre-colonial Africa?

A       Mixed farming                       B       Plantation agriculture            C          Shifting cultivation                 D       Slash and burn cultivation             E          permanent crop cultivation

  iv.        As a historian, which one would you consider as Prince Henry’s main aim in organizing the Portuguese voyages to West and East African coasts?

A       Acquiring raw materials, markets and cheap labour

B       Acquiring colonies, raw materials and markets

C       Spreading Christianity, adventure, and trade

D       Establishing processing industries, markets and raw materials

E       abolishing slave trade, slavery and introduction of legitimate trade

   v.        What took place in Europe between 1750s and 1850s?

A       industrial revolution                        B       Scramble for Africa

C       Mercantile capitalism                      D       Emergence of slave trade

E       Monopoly capitalism

  vi.        Colonialism was established through

A       post-colonial political changes.     B violence and coercion.

C       piracy and plundering.                   D revolution and violence.

E       waylaying and bogus treaties.

 vii.        Who headed the Central government of the colony?

A       Queen                                    B       Governor

C       Secretary for colonies          D       Secretary General

E       Minister for colonies

viii.        The law that demanded the Africans to carry a labour card “Kipande” aimed at ensuring that

A       the Europeans colony is exploitative effectively.

B       there is effective occupation of the colony.

C       the Africans should be allowed to grow cash crops.

D       the welfare of the Africans were taken care of.

E       the white farmers got a cheap supply of labour.

  ix.        Why the British in East Africa provided colonial health services to few areas such as settler plantation areas, military camps and cash crop producing areas?

A       To make their subjects support the colonial rule.

B       To keep their subjects wealthier and resistant to diseases.

C       To make their subjects fit for economic production.

D       To make their subjects loyal to the colonial state.

E       To stop their subjects from using traditional medicines.

   x.        Which of the following were the long-term causes of the First World War?

I         The formation of military alliances among the great powers of Europe.

II        The need for revenge among the European powers.

III       The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Serbia.

IV      The rise of Adolf Hitler and Nazism in Germany.

A       I and II                 B       II and III

C       IV and I                D       III and IV

E       I and III

  xi.        Which of the following were the countries which used constitutional means to gain their political independence?

I         Mozambique and Nigeria

II        Kenya and Tanganyika

III       Ghana and Uganda

IV      Uganda and Tanganyika

A       I and II                                    B       II and III

C       IV and I                                   D       III and IV

E       I and III

 xii.        What challenged the work of the police in 1998 in East Africa?

A       Terrorist bombing attacks

B       Idi Amin’s government take over from Milton Obote

C       Launching over the New East African Community

D       Inciting genocide in Rwanda

E       Adoption of the universal declaration of Human Rights

xiii.        The social challenges facing people in Africa include

A       Political instability and tribalism.   

B       Tribalism and neo-colonialism.

C       colonialism and illiteracy.

D       illiteracy and diseases.

E       corruption and lack of rule of law.

xiv.        Which organ of the United Nations investigates situations that pose threat to international peace?

A       The Executive Secretariat             B       The General Assembly

C       The Trusteeship Council               D       The Security Council

E       The Red Cross

xv.        The international organization undermined by Hitler was called

A       United Nations Organization.                  B       League of Nations.

C       Non-Aligned Movement.                D       Berlin conference.

E       International Court of Justice.

2.   Match the descriptions in List A with the corresponding names of the revolutions in List B by writing the letter of the correct response beside the item number in the answer booklet provided.


List A


List B

i. The revolution that was led by Gamal Abdel Nasser in 1952.

ii. The revolution that removed the Arab regime from power during the 1960s.

iii. The revolution that took place in 1917 and inspired African nationalism.

iv. The revolution that took place in 1949 and provided material and moral support to African nationalist struggles.

v. The revolution whose impact led to the abolition of slave trade.

A. Russian revolution

B. Industrial revolution

C. Mineral revolution

D. Egypt revolution

E. Libya revolution

F. Chinese revolution

G. Zanzibar Revolution

H. Sudanese October revolution



SECTION B (35 Marks)

Answer all questions in this section.

3.   Answer the following questions briefly:

     i.        Mzee Juma is an illiterate man with 89 years of age. He narrates past political events to his grand child who is eighteen years old. Why such method used by Mzee Juma is considered as an unreliable source of historical information?

    ii.        Why the Germany colonial agents would not forget the Hehe resistance?

   iii.        How would you relate the French assimilation policy and destruction of African culture?

  iv.        How would you prove that colonial education was an agent of division and racism in colonial Africa?

   v.        Why Adolf Hitler is blamed for the occurrence of the second World War?

  vi.        Why some historians consider Chancellor Otto Von Bismarck as the architect of the partition of the African continent?

4.   Arrange the following historical events in chronological order by writing number 1 to 6 beside the item number in the answer booklet provided.

     I.        The League of Nations did not take any action when Japanese attacked Manchuria.

   II.        The United Nations Organization emerged as the successor to the League of Nations.

  III.        One of the treaties signed by the Central powers was the Versailles Treaty of 1919.

 IV.        Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini used the effects of the Great Depression as a chance to enter into power and promised people to revive the Germany and Italy’s economy respectively.

  V.        Japanese attack on Pearl Harbour forced the United States of America to participate in the Second World War

 VI.        The assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand immediately caused the emergence of military conflicts among the European powers.

5.   Draw a sketch map of Africa and locate by using roman numbers:

     I.        A country which adopted a kind of a socialist ideology known as socialism and self-reliance.

   II.        A country which adopted a socialist ideology known as Humanism.

  III.        A country which was not colonized and is currently the headquarters of African Union.

 IV.        A country which adopted a kind of a socialist ideology known as the common Man’s Charter.

  V.        A Portuguese colony which tried to adopt a socialist ideology under FRELIMO political party.

SECTION C (45 Marks)

Answer three (3) questions from this section.

6.   By using six points, explain how the Berlin Conference of 1884/1885 helped the European countries to prevent war that would have occurred due to the scramble for colonies.

7.   How was migrant labor beneficial to the capitalists during the colonial period? Limit your response to six points.

8.   Elaborate six factors that contributed to the occurrence of Mfecane during the 19th century.

9.   “African countries have been suffering socially, economically and politically as a result of being members of the United Nations.” Explain six reasons to justify this statement.