Stylistics for Form Five and Six

White laptop on white table.

Stylistics is the study of language varieties or styles depending on the social situations.

Varieties of language

There are two varieties of language:
     1.   Dialect
Dialect is a variety of language according to user. Example, as speaker in one geographical location may differ from a speaker elsewhere in terms of phonology and vocabulary.

     2.   Register
A register is a variety of language according to use. The variation can be reflected in vocabulary, pronunciation, grammar and meaning.

Factors for dialect formation

     1.   Geographical extent
People in one geographical area will have some features which are different from those in another geographical area speaking the same language. That is why there is American English, British English, Nigerian English and South African English.

     2.   Social stratification
In society, speaker are grouped in different classes namely, the lower class, middle class and upper class. Each class has its own way of using language. The lower class language is not standard while the upper class uses standard language.

     3.   Historical factors
Language change with time, the old English spoken in the 8th century has changed remarkably in pronunciations and meaning.

     4.   Idiolect
 Idiolect is a variety of language as used by an individual. People differ in using language when speaking. You can notice someone speaking by just listening to his/her voice without seeing him/her.



Style
Style is a way of doing things. There are five levels of style which are:

     1.   Consultative style
It is a conversation between people who are not familiar with one another. The main purpose is just to communicate.

Features of consultative style

-      It is always polite and uses words such as, ‘would’, ‘could’, ‘should’.

     2.   Intimate style/casual style
It is used by people who have a very close relationship.

Features of intimate style

     -      It has informal features
     -      Some words are ellipted. Example,
Musa: What are you writing?
Anna: A letter.
Instead of I am writing a letter.

     3.   Frozen style
It is a style of communication that almost never changes.  Examples of frozen style are:
-      Ceremonial statement e.g (Kwa mamlaka niliyopewa na Amiri Jeshi Mkuu nawatunuku wote vyeti vya kufuzu katika jeshi letu tukufu la Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania.)

     -      Hymn and prayers in church
     -      Oaths in court, church etc.
     -   Proverbs, idioms and sayings
     -   The national anthem

     4.   Formal style
This is a variety of language which is acceptable in serious speech or writing.

Features of formal style

     - It adheres to rules of grammar.
     -      No slang words are used.
   -      It is used for restricted purposes such as academic affairs, legal matters, typical public writing, official business communication etc.

     5.   Informal style
It is a style which is not accepted in serious speech or writing.

Features of informal style
     -      Mostly used in private conversion.
     -      Mostly found in spoken language.
     -      It contains contraction, example: I’ve, we’ll, etc.
     -      Does not adhere to the rules of grammar.


Marker of style

Marker of style are features of communication which enable us to recognize its style.

Marker of style are categorized into five linguistic levels:

     1.   Graphological level
Graphological level deal with the features of words. It includes:
     -     Punctuation, capitalization, underlining, italicization, bold and paragraphing.
     -   Use of diagrams.
     -      Use of references.
     -      Use of numbers, listing, letters etc.
     -      Abbreviations.

     2.   Phonological level
Phonologocal level deal with pronunciation involving the following:

     -      Pattern of rhythm, rhyme, pitch etc.
     -      Intonation.
     -      Onomatopoeic features. Example, Bang.
     -      Pronunciation of words

     3.   Lexical level
Lexical level deal with word formation and its meaning. It deal with the following features:

     -      Reduplication (tiptop)
     -      Clipping (telephone - phone)
     -      Acronym (UWT, NATO, OAU)

     4.   Grammatical level
Grammatical level deal with grammatical rule. It deal with:
     -      Sentence analysis like, type of sentence, length of sentence
     -      Choice of clauses of phrase.
     -      Choice of words.

     5.   Semantic level
It deal with meaning of words.

Language of conversation

Language of conversation is a language of talk between two or more people where ideas are exchanged.
Phonological features of language of conversation
     -      Dialect pronunciation of words.
     -      Using of high and low pitch.
-      Use of paralinguistic devices such as: moving the arms, head and facial muscles as part of communication.
-      Use of onomatopoeic words such as, whoosh, brrr etc.


Lexical features of conversation style

     -      Words tend to be simple.
     -      There are some ambiguities in sentences such as, ‘that is a big one’. Which is difficult to understand it without further explanation.
     -      Use of hyperbole. Example ‘it’s freezing here.’

Graphological features of conversational style
     -      Italics, bold, capital letters etc
     -      Exclamation marker to show emotions. Example, ‘Oh my God!’
     -      Dots or dashes to show hesitation. Example, I’m looking for…


Legal language

Legal language it is a language used in legal matters.

Graphological features of legal language
     -      Numbering or listing.
     -      Use of heading and sub heading.
     -      Clear paragraph. Using few sentences.
     -      Use of punctuation mark to avoid ambiguity.

Grammatical features of legal language
     -      Very long complex sentences.
     -      There is no question.
     -      No use of pronouns.
     -     Use of past tenses.


Religious language

Religious language it is the language of prayers.

Graphological features of religious language
     -      Arrangement into short lines like poetry.

Grammatical features
     -      Language used is restricted to the present tense.
     -      Use of long sentences.
     -      Use of archaic expression (old English). Example, thou, thee etc

Task
Explore different types of languages ​​such as: language of advertisement, language of public speaking, language of newspaper reporting etc. then describe the features of those languages ​​based on their markers of style.

Mambo Muhimu ya Kumfundisha Mtoto Yeyote

Mwanasesere.

    

   1.   Watu wakikuuliza unataka kuwa nani ukiwa mkubwa, wajibu huna mpango wa kuwa mkubwa
Waambie utaamua ukikua. Waeleze kuwa mkubwa kuna tisha kama kuzimu, usiogope, waeleze.

     2.   Kuwa makini na mapenzi na yule unayempenda kwanza
Mama, dada, kaka, baba na ndugu zako wengine, wanachukua nafasi ya pili. Nafasi ya kwanza ni wewe mwenyewe.

     3.   Jifunze kuwa mbunifu, siyo mshindani
Ushindani unatumia nguvu nyingi na pesa kuliko ubunifu. Thamani ipo katika ubunifu na siyo ushindani.

     4.   Kuwa na marafiki bila kujali rangi, kabila wala dini
Elewa kwamba, wanaowabagua wengine ni wajinga na kamwe hawapaswi kuigwa.

     5.   Usiamini kila unachosikia
Chunguza ubaini mwenyewe. Usikubali kila kitu, vingine ni uongo uliotungwa na waongo wa dunia.

     6.   Usiende shule ili uajiliwe kazi nzuri, nenda shule ili uwe tajiri
Mfumo wa sasa, utakufanya uajiliwe na bosi ambaye alishindwa mtihani ambao wewe umefaulu. Elimu binafsi itakufanya tajiri.

     7.   Tafuta maarifa
Maarifa ni kitu cha lazima, kuna faida gani ya kuwa na mali, kisha ukaipoteza mali hiyo kwa sababu ya kukosa maarifa?

     8.   Waheshimu wazazi wako
Jinsi unavyowafanyia wazazi wako, watoto wako watakufanyia hivyo hivyo. Ukiwafanyia ubaya, na wao watakufanyia ubaya. Ukiwa mwema, nao watakuwa wema kwako.

     9.   Furahia maisha na usiruke hatua
Hatua ya maisha utakayoiruka, utaifidia uzeeni. Itashangaza ukililia kubebwa mgongoni uzeeni.

Jinsi ya Kuongeza Kujiamini

Mtu anayejiamini.


Kushindwa kujiamini ni sababu ya watu wengi kushindwa kupata mafanikio. Inawezekana hukufanya ile biashara ambayo sasa imemtajirisha fulani kwa sababu wewe hukujiamini ulipokuwa na wazo hilo. Unaweza kukosa mengi kwa kushindwa kwako kujiamini. Endapo unataka kuongeza uwezo wa kujiamini, fanya mambo haya:

     1.   Acha uongo

Unashusha heshima yako pale unaposema uongo. Siku zote zungumza ukweli hata kama hauna faida kwako.

     2.   Kuwa makini na ahadi zako

Kama ukisema utafanya jambo fulani, lifanye jambo hilo. Unatakiwa kuwa mtumwa wa maneno yako. Kujiamini kunakuja pale unapoaminika, je unaweza kumuamini mtu anayekudanganya? Bila shaka hapana. Timiza ahadi zako, itaongeza uwezo wa kujiamini.

     3.   Kuwa na watu wanaojiamini

Ukizungukwa na panya, na wewe utakuwa panya. Siku zote zungukwa na watu wanaojiamini, nawe utajiamini.

     4.   Badili fikra zako

Je fikra zako zinakujenga au zinakubomoa? Kama zinakubomoa, badilisha fikra zako. Fikria mambo mazuri na si mabaya.

     5.   Weza kitu fulani

Ukiweza utajiamini. Ongeza uwezo wa kufanya kitu fulani. Inaweza kuwa: kufundisha, kupaka rangi,kutengeneza vitanda na mambo mengine mengi. Yote haya kama huyawezi kwa ufasaha, ni lazima uwe na hofu. Ukiyaweza, utajiamini.

     6.   Fanya mambo yanayokutisha

Safiri. Hutubia. Jifunze kucheza muziki. Fanya mambo yanayokutisha.

Kwa kuzingatia mambo hayo, natumaini uwezo wako wa kujiamini utaongezeka na kukupeleka katika mafanikio ya kweli ambayo kwa muda mrefu umeyakosa kwa sababu ya kukosa kujiamini.

Mchezo wa Maneno Katika shairi la Mcheza Hawi Kiwete

Wanawake wanacheza mziki.


Swali
Siku zote mshairi hucheza na maneno katika kufikisha ujumbe uliokusudiwa kwa jamii anayoiandikia. Thibitisha kauli hii kwa kutumia mifano kutoka katika shairi la ‘Mcheza hawi kiwete’ la diwani ya Wasakatonge.
Jibu
Mchezo wa maneno huhusisha mpangilio wa maneno ambayo huonekana kuwa na tahajia na hata matamshi ya namna moja lakini namna yanavyotumika yanaonesha kuwa na maana tofauti. Katika jamii ya Waswahili hutumiwa sana hususani na washairi wa Kiswahili. Kwani kuna bahari mahususi ya ushairi wa Kiswahili inayojulikana kwa jina la zivindo. Bahari hii ni mahususi katika kufundisha lugha na imejikita sana katika matumizi ya mchezo wa maneno. Mchezo wa maneno ni mbinu ambayo hutumiwa na washairi ili kutanua maana ya kile kisemwacho na kuongeza utamu wa usemaji. Mara nyingi maneno yenye umbile moja lakini maana tofauti hutumiwa kwa ajili hii. Kwa mfano katika shairi la M. Mulokozi la ‘Wale wale’ maana tatu za neno wale zinachezwa ili kuleta ujumbe fulani. Mshairi anaona kuwa hakuna mabadiliko ya msingi yaliyotokea, kundi lile lile la walaji limerejea katika madaraka. Kadhalika maneno kama ‘kura’ na ‘kula’ yanawekwa sambamba ili kuonyesha uhusiano uliopo kati ya uchaguzi na kupiga kura yaani ulaji. (M.M. Mulokozi, 1990). Katika diwani ya Wasakatonge, shairi la ‘Mcheza hawi kiwete,’ mshairi ametumia mchezo wa maneno ili kufikisha ujumbe uliokusudiwa kwa jamii anayoiandikia kama inavyothibitishwa.
Shairi la ‘Mcheza hawi kiwete ni nasaha kwa watu kuwa, wanapotaka kufanya jambo fulani, basi wafanye jambo hilo kwa bidii kubwa bila ulegevu. Matao ni mbwembwe na machachari aliyonayo mtu katika kucheza. Kilema hawezi kucheza ndiyo maana shairi likaitwa ‘Mcheza hawi kiwete’.
Mchezo wa maneno unaonekana katika ubeti wa kwanza wa shairi. Neno ‘shika’ limeleta maana mbili tofauti. Shika iliyotumika katika mshororo wa kwanza ina maanisha mtu kupatwa na ulemavu. Shika iliyotumika katika mshororo wa tatu, ina maanisha mtu kupata ushindi.
“Mcheza hawi kiwete, kilema kilomshika,
Lau mchezo wa kete, angezila pasi shaka,
Au kama kibafute, ushindi angeushika,
Mcheza hawi kiwete, ngoma yataka matao.”
Ujumbe unaopatikana hapa ni kwamba, ili ufanikiwe katika jambo fulani, sharti ufanye kazi kwa bidii.
Katika ubeti wa tatu, mchezo wa maneno unaleta ujumbe kuwa, ubunifu unahitajika katika kazi ili kuweza kupata mafanikio. Bila ubunifu, wapinzani wako watakuzidi na utabaki bila faida.
“Ngoma hutaka madaha, ya bashasha na kucheka,
Nyuso kubeba furaha, haiba kuongezeka,
Na nyimbo za ufasaha, si kupayukapayuka…”
Maneno: madaha, bashasha, furaha, kucheka na haiba, ndiyo ubunifu ambao mtu akiwa nao anaweza kupata mafanikio katika shughuli zake.
Katika ubeti wa tano, mchezo wa maneno unaleta ujumbe kuwa, uzembe na kukosa uaminifu ni chanzo cha kushindwa. Mwandishi anasisitiza watu wasiwe wazembe wala kupoteza uaminifu lasivyo ngoma haitachezeka ikiwa na maana ya mafanikio hayatapatikana.
“Mcheza huwa na ringo, viungo kutikisika,
Kuidengua na shingo, na viuno kubenuka,
Kucheza kwa songombingo, ngoma haitachezeka…”
Ringo, kudengua na viuno kubenuka ni bidii katika kazi, lakini songombingo ndiko kukosa bidii na matokeo yake huwa ni kushindwa.
Katika ubeti wa sita, mchezo wa maneno unaleta ujumbe kuwa, watu wafuate sheria za nchi wafanyapo shughuli zao. Kushindwa kufuata sheria za nchi kuna hasara katika nchi husika, lakini pia kuna hasara kwa mhusika menyewe.
“Mcheza hufuata dundo, vile linavyosikika,
Halichezi kwa vishindo, na mishipa kumtoka,
Ngoma huleta uhondo, raha ilokamilika…”
Mcheza hufuata dundo, vile linavyosikika, ikiwa na maana ya watu kufuata sheria, na endapo sheria zitafuatwa, basi ngoma huleta uhondo, raha ilokamilika ikiwa na maana ya kupata mafanikio kwa njia halali na kufurahia utamu wa mafanikio hayo.
Katika ubeti wa kumi, mchezo wa maneno unaleta ujumbe kuwa, watu wavivu, wasio tayari kufanya kazi kwa bidii, hawawezi kupata mafanikio.
“Wenye vilema vya mwili, ngoma mnazozitaka,
Msiitake shughuli, bure mtahangaika,
Mtapata mushkeli, mtakuja adhirika,
Mcheza hawi kiwete, ngoma yataka matao.”
Vilema vya mwili imetumika kumaanisha uvivu, mshairi anawaasa wasiitake shughuli kwani hawatapata mafanikio. Ni ushauri mzuri kwa jamii ya Tanzania ambayo inapambana iwe nchi ya uchumi wa kati, ni lazima kila mmoja wetu afanye kazi, la svyo, bure atahangaika. Wavivu watapata mushkeli na kuja kuadhirika. Suluhisho la yote haya ni kufanya kazi kwa bidii.
Ujumbe mwingine ni umuhimu wa tamaduni zetu. Mshairi anatumia mchezo wa maneno kufikisha ujumbe huu, anasema:
“Si unyago si sindimba, na msewe kadhalika,
Hata kukiwa na rumba, machezo hayatatoka,
Mkilema hatatamba, ngoma yake kunogeka.”
Unyago, sindimba na msewe ni ngoma za asili. Bila shaka lengo la mshairi ni kutaka kuwakumbusha watu tamaduni zao ikiwemo ngoma za asili alizotaja. Taifa lisiloheshimu tamaduni zake, hilo ni taifa lililokufa. Ni muhimu kuheshimu tamaduni zetu kwani kupitia kufanya hivyo tunaweza kupata faida nyingi ikiwemo kutunza maadili na wakati mwingine kuvutia watalii na kujipatia fedha za kigeni.
Hivyo ndiyo mshairi wa diwani ya Fungate ya uhuru katika shairi la ‘mcheza hawi kiwete’ alivyotumia mchezo wa maneno kufikisha ujumbe. Mchezo wa maneno ni mbinu ambayo hutumiwa na washairi kufikisha ujumbe. Hata hivyo, zipo faida nyingi zaidi za kutumia mchezo wa maneno ikiwemo kukuza lugha.


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