Mtihani wa Kiswahili 2 Kidato cha Sita 2020 1 Fomati Mpya

Cheche za fataki.

Maelekezo ya Kufanya Mtihani Ili Usahihishwe na Mwalimu:

1. Mtu yeyote na popote alipo anaruhusiwa kufanya mtihani huu.
2. Fanya mtihani huu kwa kutumia aina yoyote ya karatasi.
3. Ukimaliza, piga picha karatasi hizo kisha zitume WhatsApp kwenye namba ya Mwalimu Makoba, 0754 89 53 21.
4. Subiri mtihani wako usahihishwe, Urudishiwe na ufanyiwe masahihisho.
5. Gharama ya mtihani huu ni shilingi 2,000/= (elfu mbili).
Namba za malipo ni: M – Pesa 0754 89 53 21 (Daud Mhuli) na Tigo pesa 0653 25 05 66 (Daud Mhuli).

Muda: Saa 3

Sehemu A (alama 40)

Jibu maswali yote
1. Huku ukitumia mifano, eleza kwa ufupi mitazamo mitano ya fasihi.
2. Orodhesha dhima tano za mtunzi wa kazi za fasihi.
3. Kwa kutumia mifano, toa maana ya maneno haya:
I. Uhakiki wa kazi za fasihi
II. Fasihi
III. Udhamini wa kazi za fasihi
IV. Tamathali za semi
4. A. Toa maana ya ushairi
B. Taja sifa nne za ushairi simulizi.

Sehemu B (Alama 60%)

Jibu maswali matatu, swali la nane ni la lazima.
5. “Washairi ni washauri wa jamii.” Thibitisha usemi huo kwa kutumia hoja nne kati ya diwani mbili ulizosoma.
6. “Dunia ni uwanja wa fujo.” Kwa kutumia riwaya mbili ulizosoma, thibitisha usemi huu ukitoa hoja nne kwa kila riwaya uliyosoma.
7. “Mapenzi ya kweli huondoa migogoro.” Fafanua ukweli wa kauli hii kwa kutoa hoja nne kwa kila kitabu katika tamthiliya mbili ulizosoma.
8. Soma matini ifuatayo kisha bainisha vipengele vya fani vilivyotumika.
Alisimama katikati ya jiji la Dar es Salaam. Jua kali… yeye mwenyewe alishangaa kwa nini jiji lilimkataa kiasi kile! Akiendelea kutafakari, jua likamchoma tena, ‘chooo’. Shati alilovaa, hapo zamani lilikuwa jeupe, lakini kwa sababu ya mapambano ya maisha, shati lilibadilika na  halikuwa na rangi ya kueleweka, lilibadilika na kuwa na rangi ya aina yake.
“This is impossible.” alisema kwa sauti. Mbwa aliyesimama jirani yake, akacheka, jamaa akakasirika, akarusha teke, mbwa akakwepa, akakimbia. Akasema tena kwa sauti, “Ukikosa pesa unadharauliwa mpaka na mbwa koko!” wapita njia wakamuunga mkono, “Ewaaaa!”
Zimwi likujualo halikuli likakwisha, jiji lilimfahamu, lakini sasa lilimtafuna na pengine Jamaa alibaki kipande kidogo ateketee. Alikonda kama uzi, alibaki mifupa mitupu. “Mjini, mjini, mjini...” aliendelea kuwaza kwa sauti.
Alikumbuka biashara yake ya kuuza pombe, biashara ilikwenda vizuri na alipata pesa nyingi wakati huo. Hata hivyo, biashara iliingia dosari baada ya kuibuka mchungaji mwenye upako. Mchungaji huyu alihubiri neno mpaka walevi wakaacha pombe, Jamaa akakosa wateja, akafirisika. Huo ukawa mwanzo wa maisha yake haya ya bahati mbaya!
Akisimama juani kwa muda mrefu, njaa iliongeza makali. Hakuwa hata na senti moja ya kununulia chakula, na tumbo lilitaka chakula. Ama kweli tumbo halina adabu. Basi akakumbuka maneno ya wahamasishaji, “unaweza kufanya chochote, unaweza… unaweza!” akikumbuka maneno hayo, akaokota jiwe kubwa, akaliweka katikati ya mikono yake kisha akasema kwa sauti, “Ewe jiwe… geuka mkate… geuka mkate mara moja, geuka mkate…”
Wapita njia walicheka, wakasikika wakisema, “Tayari dishi limeyumba!”
(Mwalimu Makoba: 2019)

Development of Economic Activities and Their Impact

Jangwa

Relationship between agriculture, the environment, and technological development
Areas with fertile soils and sufficient rainfall developed agriculture earlier than dry areas. Examples of areas which had fertile soil and enough rainfall include those in the interlacustrine region in East Africa.
Africans societies which had arid climate normally lived by doing pastoralism. The most famous societies which had pastoralism were the Maasai in Tanganyika and Kenya, the Fulani in West Africa and the Khoikhoi in Southern Africa. All these societies could not cultivate the crops because their climate was dry without enough rainfall.
Agriculture developed near iron working sites. Axes and hoes as part of products of iron technology facilitated clearance of areas for farming while spears and arrows defended animals keepers during grazing of animals against dangerous wild animals.
The Types of Agricultural Practices in Africa
1. Permanent crop cultivation
Permanent crop cultivation involved growing crops in one area for a long time. Crops that were grown in this type of agriculture included banana, maize, yams, beans and potatoes.
In East Africa it was majorly practiced in the interlacustrine regions such as Buganda, Kagera Kenyan highlands, Ankole around Mount Kilimanjaro, parts of Kigoma and rungwe. In West Africa it was practised in the Fante, Yoruba, Ashanti, Ife and Akwam.
Mixed farming
This is an agricultural system which involves growing of crops and rearing of animals on the same piece of land. Crops grown in this agricultural practice included cereals such as millet, sorghum, cassava and maize animals kept included cattle, goats, sheep, cows and donkey.
Mixed farmers in East Africa included the Gogo, Sangu, Sukuma, Kurya and Fipa in Tanzania, Luyia in Southwest Kenya, the Basoga and Gisu of Eastern Uganda.
Shifting cultivation
This involves spending a given period of time working on land and moving from one area that is exhausted to a new fresh piece of land. It was mainly practiced by the people who lived in grassland plateaus for example Miombo wood land savanna in central Tanzania were the rainfall was little and unreliable and the soil could be easily exhausted.
Pastoralism
This involves the keeping of livestock. The herding of domestic animals (cattle, sheep or goats), which were real and potential source of food particularly; milk, meat, animal skins and the herds were also exchanged with the different neighbouring societies.
In East Africa the dry areas include the lift valley areas of Tanzania and Kenya comprising of societies like the Maasai, Nyaturu, Barbaig and the karamanjong in Uganda.
How Agriculture Changed Man's Life
The development of agriculture changed man's life in various ways, for instance:
1. People began to live in permanent settlement
People lived in one place waiting for the harvest of their crops. This was the beginning of people living permanently on a certain area.
2. Increase of population
Population increased due to the presence of food. Food was obtained through agriculture.
3. Development of instruments of productions
Agriculture led people to be more creative in producing various agricultural equipment such as hoes and axes.
4. Development of centralized states
With the development of agriculture and other specializations which come with it, the number of people and activities increased and there was an increasing need for better organisation of people to coordinate activities. This led to the emergence of social-political organizations such as kinships, chiefdoms, kingdoms and later state organizations.
5. Development of trade
Those who produced food crops exchanged  them for iron tools for farming. The pastoralists exchanged milk and animal hides for food stuff from those who were farmers.
6. Production of surplus food
Man produced more food than he needed for his immediate use. He kept this food for future use.
Handcrafts
Handcrafts can be defined as the art of using your skills and hand to designs and fashion things, or it is an activity done with one’s hands requiring artistic skills.
The following are some of the most prominent handcraft activities in African societies
I. Basketry
II. Carpentry
III. Cloth making handicraft
IV. Pottery handicrafts
Industries
An industry is a place where transformation of raw materials into finished goods is carried out. The natural resources that existed in a given society determined the nature of industries to be found in a given area.
Iron working industries
Iron working industries involved the smelting of iron to produce iron tools and items.
Blacksmiths are people who make iron items such as knives, arrows, spears, hoes and axes. The smelting of iron was done using charcoal or wood in clay furnaces to produce heat.
Areas which had iron working industries in East Africa included: Bunyoro, Buhweju, and Kayonza in Uganda. Engaruka and Ugweno in Northern Tanzania, Mashona in Zimbabwe, Mang’anja of Malawi and areas around Kalambo falls in Zambia.
Advantage of iron working industries
1. Led to the improvement of tools of farming like hoes and pangas.
2. Increased supply of tools for defence.
3. Increase of trade and trade revenue from selling of iron tools.
4. It improved agriculture by facilitating clearance of large areas for farming.
5. It improved food production.
6. It led to the growth of population.
Uses of different types of minerals in precolonial Africa
Gold
Gold was mined in Central Africa by the Mashona of Zimbabwe, Asante of West Africa, and many other societies.
Uses of gold
I. Trade item
II. Used to make ornaments and items.
Copper
States which mined copper were: Kafue and River Gwai in Zimbabwe, Ibo and Yoruba in West Africa.
Uses of copper
I. To make items of decoration.
II. To make items of home use like bowls.
III. It was used as a trade item.
Trade in Pre-Colonial Africa
This was the exchange of goods in pre-colonial Africa.
Types of trade
1. Local trade
It was an exchange of goods which took place between the people of the same ethnic group. Individuals from families did not walk longer distance.
Types of commodities exchanged
They exchanged commodities like beans, maize and yam for milk and animal hides. The societies which did local trade were agricultural and those which specialized in iron working and pottery activities.
2. Regional trade
Regional trade refers to trade conducted from one region to another. Forms of regional trade were: Long distance trade and Trans-saharan trade.
Trans saharan trade was a long distance trade across the Saharan desert between the people of West Africa and Northern Africa. It started around 800 A.D. Western Sudanic states such as Ghana, Mali and Songhai were the main participant in this trade. Others were: Algeria, Tunisia and Egypt in Northern Africa.
Famous commodities during the Trans-Saharan trade were: gold, ivory, kola nuts, gum, ostrich feathers and a few slaves who were taken by the Arabs of West Africa.
The people of West Africa got salt, porcelain, fire arms, camels, donkeys, silk and iron from the north.
Types of commodities exchanged during the long distance trade in East Africa
Tobacco, hoes and animal skins were exchanged for salt, clothes and beads at Kilwa. Also, slave and ivory were exchanged for guns, beads and porcelain.
Societies involved
It was done by people who lived in East Africa, Central and West and Northern African societies.
Impact of local trade
1. It united people within the same area.
2. Communities obtained goods such as tools, weapons food stuffs and medical herbs.
3. Transport routes were improved.
4. Emergency of important marketing centers.
5. It encouraged communities to expand production.
Impact of regional trade
1. It strengthened some societies
Societies which participated in trade were strengthened. For example, the Nyamwezi, Yao, Baganda and Kamba.
2. Rise of trading towns
those town were: Khotakhota and Karonga along the southern route. This grew because the Yao, Nyamwezi and Kamba had to build shelters to accommodate traders in trading stations.
3. Rise of Kiswahili language
Arab and Swahili traders used Kiswahili as the principle language of trade.
4. Insecurity
This is because slave traders were capturing people to sell them as slaves.
5. Depopulation
Number of people decreased because of slave trade.
6. Decline of African industries
This was due to importation of manufactured goods such as guns, swords and clothes which were more preferred than the local manufactured goods.
Revision exercise
James, S. (2018). African History Up to the 19th Century. Dar es Salaam: Africa Proper Education Network.
1. List four early permanent crop cultivating societies in the interlacustrine region.
2. Write down four African societies which are described as pastoral societies.
3. List five major commodities that were exchanged during the long distance trade.
4. What is trans saharan trade?
5. List down five impact of trans saharan trade.
6. Draw a sketch map showing the long distance trade routes as a form of regional trade in pre colonial Africa.

Fomati Mpya Kidato cha Sita, Mambo ya Kuzingatia Ili Ufaulu

Fomati mpya kidato cha sita
Dereva wa daladala alikaa nyuma ya usukani, mkononi kashika sigareti, akavuta mkupuo mmoja, moshi ukaenda ndani, mapafu yakateketea!
Nami nilikaa katika siti ya daladala, hata hivyo nilikalia kipande kidogo cha siti kwa sababu nafasi kubwa ilimalizwa na jirani yangu aliyekuwa mnene kupitiliza. Nilipiga hesabu nikagundua, mimi na mifupa yangu, ningeingia mara tisa katika mwili ule!
Gari ikiwa katika mwendo ilipiga tuta, jirani yangu akanesa kisha akajaa zaidi, nikawa sasa nimebaki na nafasi ndogo ambayo sikuelewa kama nilikaa ama nilichuchumaa. Walimu tunapata shida sisi, ptuuuuuh!
“Mwalimu Makoba,” jirani yangu aliniita, nikashtuka.
“Unanifahamu? Uliniona wapi?” niliuliza nikimtazama kwa udadisi.
“Nakufahamu, nilikuona gugo,” alijibu.
“Sawa, una jina?” niliuliza.
“Ndiyo, ninalo, naitwa Tom Tom.” alijibu, kisha akaendelea, “lakini mwalimu, kwa nini wamebadili fomati? Kwa nini wafanye hivi tukiwa tumebakiwa na miezi michache tu, fomati yenyewe ngumu, ni kama maswali yote yamekuwa ya lazima.”
Baada ya kuhakikisha kuwa kamaliza maswali yake, nilijisogeza kidogo ili nikae vizuri, hata hivyo sikupata nafasi, nilibaki vilevile nisiyejua kama nimekaa ama nimechuchumaa, nikamjibu Tom Tom kwa maelezo marefu:
“Nakupa tahadhari Tom Tom, ukiichukia fomati hii, kuna uwezekano mkubwa wa kushidwa mtihani wako, ni lazima uipende, vyovyote vile lazima uipende. Kilichobadilika ni idadi ya maswali pekee, siyo mada, hivyo hakuna tatizo kwa mwanafunzi aliyesoma vizuri.
Mambo ya Kuzingatia ili Ufaulu Mtihani wa Fomati Mpya
1. Ipende fomati mpya
Usijaribu kuichukia, tafuta sababu za kuipenda. Miongoni mwa sababu hizo ni kwamba, fomati hii ina maswali machache hivyo ni rahisi kusoma maswali yote na kuchagua maswali unayotaka bila kupoteza muda mwingi.
2. Soma mada zote
Usiache mada hata moja. Katika fomati hii mpya, maswali mengi ni ya lazima na ya hiari hayazidi mawili, na mitihani mingine swali la hiari ni moja tu. Hivyo, kuna hatari ya kupoteza alama endapo hukusoma mada zote.
Pia, katika somo la fasihi, usisome vitabu viwiliviwili pekee. Soma vitabu vingi zaidi. Mfano: katika riwaya soma riwaya nne, ushairi soma diwani nne, nazo tamthiliya soma nne. Nasema hivyo kwa sababu kuna kipengele cha maswali mafupi, unaweza kuulizwa swali kuhusu kitabu chochote!”
Wakati nataka kuongeza hoja ya tatu, niligundua kuwa, Tom Tom alikuwa kasinzia naye hanisikilizi tena. Nilisimama nikamwamrisha konda,
“Nishushe kituo kinachofuata. Nauli atalipa yule Tipwa Tipwa aliyelala.”

Kanuni Tatu Muhimu Zitakazokufanya Uishi Maisha Bora

Mwanaume mwenye furaha.

1. Tazama vitu vinavyokuzunguka


Kila unapokuwa peke yako, tazama vitu vilivyokuzunguka. Tazama jinsi watu wanavyotembea, wanavyofanya hiki na kile. Tazama jinsi magari yanavyo ondoka, pia, sikiliza sauti zinazosikika mahali hapo.
Fanya haya kwa sababu:
A. Hutafikiria vitu ambavyo si vya muhimu. Akili yako itakuwa ‘bize’ kiasi cha kuondoa msongo wa mawazo.
B. Utajifunza jinsi dunia inavyofanya kazi. Inaweza kukusaidia kuwasaidia wengine, kupitia kutazama unaweza kugundua uwepo wa mawingu na kuwapa taarifa wengine juu ya uwepo wa mvua muda mfupi ujao.
C. Inakufanya uwafahamu watu haraka, pia inasaidia kuokoa muda.

2. Mpende kila mtu


Mheshimu kila mtu. Fanya hivi bila kujali kabila la mtu, jinsia au wapi anatokea. Faida za kufanya hivi ni:
A. Utaweza kusaidiwa na watu pale utakapopata shida. Mtu anayewapenda na kuwaheshimu wengine, huweza kusaidiwa wakati wa matatizo na watu wasikiapo kapata shida, husikitika na kujitolea kumsaidia. Mtu asiyewapenda wengine wala kuwaheshimu, apatapo matatizo, watu husema, ‘mwache akome.’
B. Utakuwa mwenye furaha katika maisha yako. Endapo unapenda watu na kuwaheshimu, maana yake hakuna kinyongo ndani yako. Kama hupendi watu wala kuwaheshimu utakuwa na vinyongo vingi ambavyo vitakufanya ukose furaha katika maisha yako.
C. Utaweza kupata maarifa kutoka kwa watu mbalimbali ambao una waheshimu na kuwapenda.

3. Washauri watu wengine


Faida ya kufanya hivi ni:
A. Itakusaidia uwe na busara zaidi. Mtu anapotoa ushauri humfanya hata yeye mwenyewe afaidike na huo ushauri, pia, mtu anayeshauri wengine, hujitahidi kutafuta maarifa zaidi ili aweze kuaminiwa na watu hao.
B. Utaokoa maisha ya watu wengi. Kuna watu hukata tamaa hata kutamani kujitoa uhai kwa sababu ndogo tu. Ukiwashauri wengine, huenda ukaokoa maisha ya mtu fulani, inawezekana, huwezi jua.
Hayo ndiyo mambo matatu yatakayokufanya uwe na maisha ya furaha, mafanikio, na kila lililo jema. Ukizingatia hayo, maisha yako yatabadilika mara moja. Unasubiri nini kuanza kuyafanyia kazi, usitafute sababu za kushindwa, amua sasa.
Zaliwa upya.

Kuna tatizo linakusumbua na unahitaji ushauri? Gusa hapa kuchat na Mwalimu