Writing Skills For Form Five and Form Six

Books on table.

Writing is the process of using symbols (letters of the alphabet, punctuation and spaces) to communicate thoughts and ideas in a readable form.

Writing essays of different types

Essay is a short piece of writing on a topic and presents the author’s point of view on the matter. An essay is a collection of ideas.

Types of essay

1. Narrative essay
A narrative essay is an essay which tells a story. The author may remember his or her past, or a memorable person or event from the past, or even observe the present and narrate it on a piece of paper.
2. Expository essay
Expository essay is an essay which explains something with facts. These are the essays we most often write at school. Expository writing include: newsletters, guidebooks, magazine articles, reports and research paper.
3. Argumentative essay
An argumentative essay is a type of essay that presents arguments about both sides of an issue. It could be that both sides are presented equally balanced, or it could be that one side is presented more forcefully than the other. It all depends on the writer, and what side he supports the most.
4. Descriptive essay
These are types of essays which tell us what things, people, events and places look like.

An example of narrative essay

One day Mr Hyena was very hungry indeed, and so he went out to look for food. As he was going round about the countryside,he smelt some appetizing smell of roasting meat. The Hyena was not sure what side this smell of meat came from. He walked on and on following a path that led towards the thick forest. He thought, “This hunger will kill me. My stomach pains very much.”
Now when he had gone a short distance, he came to a place where two paths met. The smell of meat was becoming stronger and stronger. Mr Hyena stood where these paths met trying to decide which path would lead him to the meat.
He smelt this way and that and still he was not sure. At last he decided to try out one path. “I will follow this one. It look more likely to bring me to the meat.” yet he come back, “No that one cannot be the right one. I must try the other one. He came back feeling frustrated and unhappy.
He was now getting worried that the meat would be finished before he got it. I will now follow both paths, he said, two paths, two legs on one path the onther two legs on the other. And now for the walking.
The beginning was easier but the distance between the paths became wider and wider so that the Hyena felt the strain become too great to bear. He felt as if his belly would split into two at any moment.
He painted and groaned still hoping that he would come to the meat. He found at one point that he could not continue. He slumped onto the ground torn into two pieces.
(Rose N. Gecau, Kikuyu Folktales: their Nature and Value, East Africa Literature Bureau, 1970, pp.66-7).

An example of argumentative essay

Nature vs. Nurture
This essay discusses whether it is nature or nurture which shapes the behavior of a human being as for quite sometime now there has been a large controversy over whether inherited genes or the environment influences and effects our personality, development, behavior, intelligence and ability. This controversy is most often recognized as the nature versus nurture. While som people believe that it is strictly genes that effect our ways of life (nature) others believe that its environment that effects us (nurture), and some believe that both of these influence our behavior. Either way, social scientists have been struggling for centuries deciding whether our personalities are born (nature) or made (nurture).
Most of us are not quite sure whether it is nature or nurture which influences our behaviour.
Tests are done often on identical twins that were separated to see how they are each influenced by their separate environments. In the past twenty years, it has been discovered that there is genetic components to every human trait and behavior. However, genetic influence on traits and behavior is partial because genetics account on average for half of the variation of most traits. Urie Bronfrenbrenner who studied genetic said, “its not nature vs nurture, but the interaction of nature and nurture that drives development.” some research findings show that the balance between genetic and environmental influences for certain traits change as people get older.
also people may react to us in a certain way because of genetically influenced personality and, we may choose certain experiences because they fit best with our instinctive preferences. This means that our experiences may be influenced by our genetic tendencies.
One way researchers study the development of traits and behaviors is by measuring the influences of genetics through out ones life span, and it is found to be that the genetic influence on certain trait increase as people age. A research was done to see whether a trait would show up in a child if it was environmentally influenced og genetically influenced. A child was given more negative attention than another was, and it increased the chances of the child having depressive symptoms and anti-social behavior. But these symptoms disappeared when accounted for genetic influences and how parents treat their children.
Finally, it is safe to say that the role of genetics and the environment is to equalize people’s traits and behaviour. You cannot blame either one because without one, the other would not be activated. Genes effect a lot of our personality and behavior but the environment mutates and molds the way we act. This will always be an ongoing controversy because it is nearly impossible to pin point accurately where the role of genes and the environment steps in.

An example of descriptive essay

My Room
My room is good looking. Its walls are painted white. Below is a glittering floor. I like being in my room most of the time.
On the left, there is a large bed with blue sheets. Also this bed has a mirror in the front that I use to watch my face every time I get up.
On the right side of the wall there is a large clock. This clock helps me to know time easily.
On the back of the bed I have placed a small bookcase. all my books are available there. Every day I clean them so that books do not get dusty.
My room has one window, this window gives me fresh air. I usually open during the day and close it at night.
Mother says that my room is nice. that's because every day I clean it. So my room always looks clean.
That's my room, I love it and will always take care of it. if my father gives me some money, I'll buy a large foot cleaner that I will put in my bedroom door.

Difference between written language and spoken language

1. Spoken language take place when both the speaker and the listener are present but written language it is used to communicate with someone who is away from the communicator.
2. Spoken language is characterized by uncompleted sentences due to interruptions while written language is well edited because there is room for reading what has been written to see if there is any obvious error.
3. Spoken language is characterized by immediate responses or feedback because the communicators are face to face with each other while written language lack immediate feedback.
4. Spoken language is mainly informal while written language is normally formal.
5. Spoken language is characterized by frequent change in topics especially in conversation while written language sticks to one topic at one time.
6. Spoken language is characterized by pauses and gap fillers like er….. ah…. this is because of the pressure of thinking what to say next, but written language have no gap fillers.

An example of personal letter/friendly letter

Garden Street,
P. O.Box 35040,
Kinondoni-Dar es Salaam.
November 25, 2019.
Dear mother,
I am sending you this letter, to tell you much fun I am having at my grandmother house. Yesterday we went to the garden. I really enjoyed eating different fruits like mangoes, apple, and papaya. Also, my grandmother took me to a river with clean water, and I learned to swim. Life here is exciting, and I have a lot to tell you when I come back home. This time, I'm writing this letter. I am getting ready to go watch horse racing.
I miss you and the rest of the family, but I will be home soon. Give everyone a big hug and a kiss for me.
Your daughter,
Amana Nyembo.

An example of official letter

Application letter
Hananasif Street,
P.O. Box 576,
Kinondoni-Dar es Salaam.      
Najua Kusoma Nursery School,
P.O.Box 234,
Kinondoni-Dar es Salaam.

Dear Sir/madam,
I am a female aged 23 years old and I am applying for teaching vacancy as it was announced in Mwananchi Newspaper of 21st  November 2019.
I have studied nursery teaching at St. Joseph College in 2019. Also, I have done field work in different nursery schools during my studies.
I believe that I possess the temperament and experience to excel in this position. Not only am I well organized but I have a passion for creating positive and productive work environments.
I am ready for an interview any day you will need me. Also, I am enthusiastically looking forward to receiving a positive response from you. Enclosed are copies of my certificates.
Yours faithfully,
C. Sylivester
Chausiku Sylivester

Short official note (memo)
A memo is a note that we write to people whom we lead or work with in an organization or institution. It has the following format:
To: Mahona Kija
From: Headmaster
Date: 04th December 2019
Subject: Meeting
Kindly inform other teachers about the meeting that will take place tomorrow in the staff room. Class teachers should come with monthly reports. I hope every one will attend, making the meeting successfully take place.

Letter to the newspaper editor

The Editor,
Mwananchi Newspaper,
P.O.Box 34,
Dar es Salaam.

Dear Editor,
I am a resident of Songambele Village, in our village we are facing water problems. There is scarcity of water for over two weeks.
We have tried to talk to our leaders so they can solve this problem but failed. So far it is unclear why water is not coming from our pipes.
Water shortages have created many effects including: people being unable to take a bath, women walking long distances to find water in the river and the society is not having safe drinking water which can cause diseases.
By writing this letter, it is our hope that, the people involved will see our problem and will help us. Thank you very much.

Nkamba Luhende,
Songambele Village,
P.O.Box 345,

Report writing

Report is written account of something that one has observed, heard, done, or investigated.
Below is an example of report.

Special Report of December 11, 2019

Report on the Reason for Truancy at Our School
A team was supposed to carry out a mini research on the reasons for truancy at our school.
The objective of the study was to find out reasons that have speeded up truancy in various schools recently.
Method of data collection
A team of ten people was chosen then each person was given two types of questionnaires: One of the parents and other for the pupils. Then five zones were formed and each zone was attended by two researchers.
75% of the parents who filled the questionnaire said that, their children had no school uniforms, while 25% said pupils were involved in petty bussines activities during school hours. On the other hand, 90% of the pupils said that they were assigned to do some activities including petty trade during school hours. 10% of the pupils remained silent as they did not give any reasons in the questionnaire.
There is indeed a critical problem of truancy at school and it may continue growing unless it is immediately checked. This is evidenced by the fact that parents seem not to care about the problem. So, there is a need to develop some measures that will eventually help to lessen the problem or to totally control it have to be taken.
Minutes are written documents that give summary of the acts and resolutions passed in a meeting.

An example of a minute

1. Njika Masuke (Chairperson)
2. Abel Mathias (Recorder)
3. Ramadhan Said
4. Kasikila Fundikila
5. Lilian Mlundi
6. Groria Mbaga
1. Athuman Mzuru
2. Abeid Buzohera
1. Confirmation of the minutes of the previous meeting
2. Matters arising
3. Report from head
4. Reports from section Co-ordinators/representatives to various Committees
5. A.O.B
The meeting was called to order at 9.00 a.m
- Meeting held on 15.07.2011
- Computers have already arrived from the U.S.A
I. Announced that the beginning of the term has been postponed.
II. Informed that orientation week will commence on 3.12.2011
III. Reported that two students have been given scholarship to U.K
A. O.B
- Requested additional seats in the laboratory.
- There being no other business, the meeting was closed at 12.30 p.m
….……………….. ………………
Njika Masuke Abel Mathias
(Chairperson) (Recorder)

Writing curriculum vitae

An example of curriculum vitae:



NAME: Shija Masanja


DATE OF BIRTH : 29/12/1993

SEX : Female


MOBILE PHONE: 0742 29 70 94

E-Mail: masanjashija@gmail.com


Tumaini Makumira
Bachelor of Arts With Education (Kiswahili&History)
Mbalizi Secondary School
Advance Certificate of Secondary Education Examination (ACSEE)
2006 - 2009
Igowole Secondary School
Certificate of Secondary Education Examination (CSEE)
1999 - 2005
Igaga Primary School
Primary School Certificate


July 2017 - September 2017: Teaching Kiswahili at Kenton Secondary School.


Swahili: Excellent written and oral skills.

English: Excellent Written and oral skills.


I am also equipped with the following skills:

Computers skills-Knowledge and skills on the application of Microsoft Office:

- Microsoft Word, Microsoft Excel, Microsoft PowerPoint, Publisher, Internet & its Application.

- Entrepreneurship skills, Leadership skills, Basic employ-ability skills, Managerial skills, Guidance and counseling skills.


- Praying, studying, socializing, reading news papers, singing and reading inspiring books.

Referee available on requests:

1. Mwalimu Makoba,
Head Master,
Mwalimu Makoba Open School,
Contact: 0754 89 53 21
Dar es Salaam.

2. Mr. David Mwakimonga,
Assistant Lecturer,
University of Dar es Salaam,
P. O.BOX 35040,
Dar es Salaam.
Email: mwaki@yahoo.com


I, Shija Masanja, do hereby declare and state that, the information given on this curriculum vitae is true to the best of my knowledge.

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