Impacts of Human Acts and Acts of Man in the Society


A woman on a dumping area

Question

Explicate the impact of ‘human acts’ and ‘acts of man’ towards positive or negative realization of projects in the society.

Answer

Human acts are free choices performed by man. The Human persons is an intelligent and free capable of determining our own lives by our own free choices. This is through by freely choosing to shape our lives and actions in accord with the truth by making good moral choices. Acts of which a human persona has master, these are acts which are carried out with full knowledge and of his own will. Human actions performed by human person knowingly and freely, the will is properly enlightened by the intellect. Therefore, Human acts are those acts which proceed from a deliberate freewill.

The three elements of human acts are: knowledge, freedom and voluntariness. Only human acts are moral acts since it is only with human acts that, human person is responsible for his or her actions. Freedom-makes man a moral subject- when human acts in deliberate manner, he or she is the father or mother of his or her acts. Human person is thus responsible (culpable/guilt/responsible/liable) for those acts which he or she can acknowledge that he or she has done them because he or she wanted to and he or she can explain why he or she decided to do them. Those acts can be morally classified, either good or evil.

Intellect and the will are not two successive acts but two elements of human acts. It is not that the intellect that knows and the will that decides but human person who both knows and decides through simultaneous use of the two faculties, the “will” and “intellect”. The Will directs the intellect to know whereas the Intellect directs the will to want the object it proposes. Will is the only object which necessarily attracts the “Absolute Good”. Partial goods imperfectly known, will not necessarily attract the will. The “Will” naturally inclined to the good but the human person may sometimes deliberately choose something morally evil. In this case, the will chooses a partially good that the “will” itself has commanded the intellect to present as such. How did it happen? Because the will has a fixed inclination to the good, the “will” can only choose something bad when it is presented under its good aspects. This is due to the disordered disposition of the “will” with respect to its last end, and the means leading to it, there lies the culpability of the choice.

The full grasp of what the free human act is and the role it plays in human action cannot be appreciated without an analysis of the whole human act as it is exercised in the concrete order, involving both the intellect and the will.

Interplay of Intellect and Will. The numbering of the steps, evenly divided between the intellect and the will, manifests the intimate connection between the intellect and the will in human action. On the one hand, the intellectual acts specify the acts of the will, for what one wills does depend on what he knows; on the other hand, each act of the will subsequently moves the intellect to a further act of knowing until the will is brought to some rest in an enjoyment of what was initially desired or, if unsuccessful, to a sorrow in not attaining what was initially desired. It should be noted that the human act is outlined here in terms of its intrinsic parts; the role of the emotions and other influences have also to be taken into account. Primarily, however, the human act is constituted of individual acts on the part of the intellect and the will.

This analysis of the human act enables one to understand human freedom better and to see, more precisely, what constitutes the free human act, which is usually spoken of as free will. One can now comprehend that actually a man's free act is a joint product of intellect and will. It is exercised principally, though not exclusively, in steps seven and eight of the list, the judgment on the part of the intellect that is inseparably allied with the choice of means. The connection between intellect and will is most intimate here. The intellect, in its practical judgment with regard to a means, is a determining cause of the will's choosing one object rather than another. But this is a determination coming from knowledge; and hence the will, in exercising the act of choice, is still choosing freely what is proposed on the part of the intellect. In a concrete instance facing man in knowing what he should do, his judgment of the choice is made and the will accordingly freely exercises its act of choice. This is positive freedom of specification: freely choosing to do what one knows one should do. Negative freedom consists in one's being able to reject what he knows he should do. What is involved here also is the judgment of con science, which is still distinct from the practical judgment of the intellect in regard to choice. The latter judgment, as has been seen, is inseparably connected with appetite—with the will in its act of choice. The judgment of conscience, analytically prior to the practical judgment with reference to choice, is wholly an act of the intellect and thus apart from an actual choice to be made here and now; in an act of conscience one judges that an individual act is right to do as falling under a universal judgment or precept that acts of this kind should be done. It is a judgment of conscience, for example, that this debt should be paid, as falling under the universal judgment that debts should be paid. It is not yet the practical judgment with regard to choice and the ensuing act of choice, which takes place here and now, and where freedom of the human act is ultimately and principally located.

Then, Acts of man refer to those acts which man performs without being master of them through his intellect and will, therefore, they are not voluntary. Examples of Acts of Man are: the natural acts of vegetative and sense faculties-digestion, beating of heart, growth, corporal reactions, visual or auditive perceptions - but these acts may become human acts when they are performed with malice, or when we are directed by the will, when we look at something or arouse ourselves. Acts of persons without the proper use of reason– children or insane persons. Acts of people asleep or under the influence of hypnosis, alcohol or other drugs- however, there may still be some degree of control by the will- but there is indirect responsibility if the cause of the loss of control is voluntary. Primo-primi acts –quick and nearly automatic reactions –reflex and nearly instantaneous reactions without timefor the intellect or will to intervene. Acts performed under serious physical – or in some cases –moral violence.

Essential Qualities of Acts of Man: done without knowledge, without consent and involuntary. Acts of man can become human acts when one employs intellect and will in performing the act. An act of man is one that is not dependent upon intellect and free will. It is done by a person but is not proper to him as a person because it does not stem from those facilities which peculiar to man, namely, intellect and will.

Differences between human acts and acts of man are:

Acts of Human is the immediate action or the point where one does it without much thought and this holds a lot of values within, it clearly shows the strong morals developed in him. Example: Jumping into river to save a person drowning without knowing to swim/not. Human act is more of conscience involved, where he knows and understands the act being performed. Example: Before jumping into river, he judges his ability to swim and save. If not, asks right person to do it.

Acts of Human need not be definitely positive in nature, it can be negative too. Example: slapping the other person because he slapped you - spontaneous action. Here with little application of knowledge and thought one can turn the acts of Human into human acts. At this junction of thought/knowledge, if one uses it- it turns to be human acts and if not- turns to be acts of Human.

Certain factors which may affect any of the three constituents of human acts are: Ignorance: Lack or absence of knowledge in a person capable of knowing a certain thing or things. Invincible ignorance: The type of ignorance which cannot be dispelled by ordinary diligence.

Impacts of human acts towards positive realization of projects in the society are:

Studying is a human act which have positive realization of projects in the society. Through studying and being educated, people are now aware about different projects which are taking place in the society. For example, road construction project where by people are aware about this because of being educated. Those who get an education have higher incomes, have more opportunities in their lives, and tend to be healthier. Societies benefit as well. Societies with high rates of education completion have lower crime, better overall health, and civic involvement. Lack of access to education is considered the root of poverty. There's a reason that many girls in third world countries are devastated when something unexpected happens (perhaps related to family issues or more broadly, poverty) and their parents can no longer afford to send them to school. From a third world perspective, education is one of the only keys of breaking the vicious cycle of poverty. Basic education is able to substantially lift up a family's quality of living. Say a mother has fundamental basic education, such as simple maths, English etc, her children would already be at an advantage. A mother who has basic education is more likely to send her children to school rather than expect them to rear children at a young and vulnerable age of 13. Basic educational skills will also likely mean that you are more likely to understand methods that protect you from easily preventable illnesses (for instance, you may know to boil water to prevent bacterial induced diarrhoea from drinking dirty, unfiltered dug-up well water). Moreover, those with an education are more likely to be able to get a higher paying job, let's say in tourism rather than one of subsistence (using your own labour in the fields). Although in third world countries this may not be the biggest advantage given the inherent lack of jobs, it definitely gives you a fighting advantage over someone who does not have any education.

Practicing safe sex is a human act which have positive realization of projects in the society. In the society there is a project which aim at reducing the spread of HIV/AIDS. Through practicing safe sex, the spread of viruses are low.  This is helping to save people health who may be would die with AIDS if they never practiced safe sex. Some benefits include protection against HIV, sexually transmitted diseases, and pregnancy and a reduction in the risk of pelvic inflammatory disease and cervical cancer among women. Safer sex has no side effects, and the tight fit of a condom for some men helps maintain an erection. Safe sex and a loving partner can be a recipe for happiness. Engaging in sexual activity can bring instant emotional and physical satisfaction.

Agricultural activities is a human act which have positive realization of projects in the society. Society need to remove poverty and to increase food security in the country. Through agriculture, people are doing good actions to ensure that there is availability of food in the society. Farming creates opportunities to lift people out of poverty in developing nations. Over 60 percent of the world's working poor works in agriculture. Farming creates more jobs, beginning with farmers, and continuing with farm equipment makers, food processing plants, transportation, infrastructure and manufacturing. The foremost advantage is that food is being produced in appreciable abundance. Food production creates additional industries: seed development and production; crop protection services; equipment retailers and service providers; grain handling and processing services; livestock processing plants; transportation; and retailers of various description. Employment for millions of people around the world.

Good leadership is a human act which have positive realization of project in the society. A good leader, bring development to the people. A good leader is important to end all problems facing the community. Effective leaders have the necessary tools and skills to inspire and impact their teams allowing firms to run competently and smoothly. Developing effective leaders brings untold benefits to businesses including higher productivity, happier staff, better retention and loyalty. One of the advantages of leadership is that if leaders are able to delegate tasks efficiently, they can help increase worker productivity. Good leadership is what gets people excited to work, it raises the morale, and it keeps everything and everyone on track. Motivating employees -sound leadership creates an urge for accomplishment and transforms potential into performance.

Helping others is a human act which have positive realization of project in the society. There are people in our community who need our help because of different problems facing them. It’s good to help people so as to make this world a good place to be. Giving to others can also help protect your mental and physical health. It can reduce stress, combat depression, keep you mentally stimulated, and provide a sense of purpose. Giving in even simple ways can help those in need and improve your health and happiness. Volunteering your time, money, or energy to help others doesn't just make the world better—it also makes you better. Studies indicate that the very act of giving back to the community boosts your happiness, health, and sense of well-being. Four things stand out to me about people who help others. They display initiative, confidence, care, and capacity—all extremely positive characteristics.

Respect to laws is a human act which have positive realization of project in the society. Laws are made to make the society better. People who respect laws made life feel good in the community. The importance of respecting rules is that, when they are followed, benefit a individual, group, or society as a whole. You may have personal rules, i.e. sticking to a diet. Rules for a group depend on the group, but might be something like a company deciding to handle a project in a certain way, and society at large has laws. As long as these laws are just and beneficial, they should be enforced and respected. When human rights are expressed and guaranteed by law, those laws help to ensure that we are all treated fairly, and with dignity, equality and respect.

Also, Impacts of human acts towards negative realization of projects in the society are:

Using of drugs like alcohol, weed and cocaine is a human act which have negative realization of projects in the society. People who use drugs are not aware about different projects in the society. They bring negative effects in the society. For example, drug users have habit of stealing different material which are used to make different infrastructures. For example, many drug users have a habit of stealing dustbin made for city waste disposal. This is bad and can cause eruption of cholera. Disadvantages of drugs include, increased strain on the liver, which puts the person at risk of significant liver damage or liver failure. Seizures, stroke, mental confusion and brain damage. Lung disease. Problems with memory, attention and decision-making, which make daily living more difficult.

Terrorism is a human act which have negative realization of projects in the society. Terrorist cause negative effects in the society by killing people and destroying buildings and other infrastructure. For example, because of terrorism and terrorist groups, Somalia is a failure state. Terrorist acts can cause ripple effects through the economy that have negative impacts. The most obvious is the direct economic destruction of property and lives. Terrorism indirectly affects the economy by creating market uncertainty, xenophobia, loss of tourism, and increased insurance claims.

Corruption is a human act which have negative realization of projects in the society. Corrupt leaders are a reason of failure of different projects. For example, some leaders take money which may be was needed for construction of hospitals to help people. Also because of corruption, some business are failing every day. All in all, corruption is a source of many youths unemployment. Now days, employment depend on connections. Corruption erodes the trust we have in the public sector to act in our best interests. It also wastes our taxes or rates that have been earmarked for important community projects – meaning we have to put up with poor quality services or infrastructure, or we miss out altogether.

Then, Impacts of act of man towards positive realization of projects in the society are:

Acts of man like breathing, eye blinking, heart rates and brain functioning have positive impacts towards realization of projects in the society whereby, through those body function, man became healthier who is able to do different work to bring development in his/her community. To have health body, people should have health diet. Healthful eating has many health benefits, such as reducing the risk of heart disease, stroke, obesity, and type 2 diabetes. It can also boost a person's mood and provide them with more energy. A doctor or dietitian can provide tips on eating a more healthful diet.

Sometime acts of man can have negative impact, for example when someone is drunk, he/she can rape or be raped and cause serious problem in the society like spread of HIV/AIDS, pregnant and psychological problems.

Finally, ‘human acts’ and ‘acts of man’ have impacts towards positive or negative realization of projects in the society. An act that is performed only by a human being and thus is proper to man. Not every act that a human being does is a distinctively human act. Some acts that human beings do are performed also by animals, e.g., vegetative acts and acts of perception and of emotion. When a human being does such acts, they are called acts of man but not human acts. Acts of man, therefore, are acts shared in common by man and other animals, whereas human acts are proper to human beings. What makes an act performed by a human being distinctively a human act is that it is voluntary in character, that is, an act in some way under the control or direction of the will, which is proper to man. One can therefore identify the human act with the voluntary act. A voluntary act proceeds either from the will itself—for example, an act of love or of choice—or from some other human power that can in some way be moved by the will, whether an act of the intellect, of sense cognition, or of emotion; even an act of some bodily member as commanded by the will can be a voluntary act. This analysis of the human act enables one to understand human freedom better and to see, more precisely, what constitutes the free human act, which is usually spoken of as free will. One can now comprehend that actually a man's free act is a joint product of intellect and will. It is exercised principally, though not exclusively, in steps seven and eight of the list, the judgment on the part of the intellect that is inseparably allied with the choice of means. The connection between intellect and will is most intimate here. The intellect, in its practical judgment with regard to a means, is a determining cause of the will's choosing one object rather than another. But this is a determination coming from knowledge; and hence the will, in exercising the act of choice, is still choosing freely what is proposed on the part of the intellect. In a concrete instance facing man in knowing what he should do, his judgment of the choice is made and the will accordingly freely exercises its act of choice. This is positive freedom of specification: freely choosing to do what one knows one should do. Negative freedom consists in one's being able to reject what he knows he should do. What is involved here also is the judgment of con science, which is still distinct from the practical judgment of the intellect in regard to choice. The latter judgment, as has been seen, is inseparably connected with appetite—with the will in its act of choice. The judgment of conscience, analytically prior to the practical judgment with reference to choice, is wholly an act of the intellect and thus apart from an actual choice to be made here and now; in an act of conscience one judges that an individual act is right to do as falling under a universal judgment or precept that acts of this kind should be done. It is a judgment of conscience, for example, that this debt should be paid, as falling under the universal judgment that debts should be paid. It is not yet the practical judgment with regard to choice and the ensuing act of choice, which takes place here and now, and where freedom of the human act is ultimately and principally located.

References

Aristotle, Eth. Nic. 1103a 12–1119b 19, 1138b 15–1145a 12.

Thomas Aquinas 1a2ae, 6–21. j. a. oesterle, Ethics: The Introduction to Moral Science (Englewood Cliffs, N.J. 1957) 45–100. m. v.

Murray, Problems in Ethics (New York 1960) 72–106. v.

J. Bourke, Ethics (New York 1951) 57–120.

 J. ford and G. Kelly, Contemporary Moral Theology 1

I. Fuchs, Human Values and Christian Morality, tr. m.

Unahitaji Kufanyiwa Swali Lako? Gusa Hapa Kuwasiliana Nami.

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