Introduction to Teaching | CT 100 University Notes

Small class.

Module 1

Conception of teaching and learning

Teaching is the set of events outside the learners designed to support internal process of learning. Or is the purposeful intervention with the aim of promoting learning and assuring learning to happen or a system of actions involving an agent and in view and situation.

Important event of teaching

                   i.        An agent who is the teacher
                   ii.        An end in view which are students
                   iii.        The situations the environment of teaching
                   iv.        The subject matter-content to be learned.

Conception of teaching

Teaching as transmission process
This view assumes that information is there to be acquired from the teacher by the students. Involve are one way of information from the teacher to the students.

     1.   Useful for transmitting factual information such as dates.
     2.   Help in concerning a lot of materials in short time.
     3.   Suitable for passive learners.
     4.   Easy to assess the level of knowledge gained through this teaching.

     1.   Little or no creativity is encouraged.
     2.   Very linear and not suited to active learners and some intelligences.

b. Teaching as interaction process
Both teacher and students participate and contribute in the generation of information during teaching.
Possible interaction patterns are:
Teacher – student
Student – teacher
Student – student
Student – resources

     1.   Can be highly interactive and engaging.
     2.   Foster creativity and reasoning skills.

Disadvantage of interactive process
     1.   Not suitable for passive leaners.
     2.   Time consuming, therefore affect the coverage and materials.
c. Teaching as transformation process
The student utilize the knowledge gained to solve real problems.

Is teaching an art or science?

Teaching as an art
An art is human creative skills and imagination, example, paint, sculpture, producing work…

Teaching is an art of interpretation and self-expression on the part of the teacher.

The art comes from the teacher’s personality, experience and talent.

Teaching as a science

 Science is about evidence, procedures and strategies. Science in teaching comes from knowledge in a child development and structure of the curriculum. Also, teaching follow the generalization research about effective teaching.

Elements of communication

     1.   Sender
Initiate communication.
     2.   Medium
The carrier of information.
     3.   Message
Communication in writing, speech or signals.
     4.   Receiver
It is the individual to whom message is sent.
     5.   Feedback
Occurs when the receiver respond to sender
It allow the sender to determine whether the message has been received and understood.

Feedback can be external (observables) or internal feedback. (Can’t be seen).

Barriers of communication

-      Internal barrier
-      Fatigue
-      Poor listening skills
-      Negative attitudes
-      Lack of interest to the message
-      Fear
-      Emotions
-      Other problems. Eg. At home.
External barriers
-      Noise
-      Time of the day
-      Sender using too many technical words

Function of teachers

     1.   Executive function
-      To plan for teaching
-      Manage classroom
-      Assess and evaluate students

     2.   Interactive function
-      To provide direct face to face instruction to students by using a variety of approaches.

     3.   Organizational function
-      To realize the school, college as social system with rules, regulation and structure.

-      Work comfortably with other and the community.

Knowledge base for teaching

     1.   Content knowledge
Knowledge of the subject matter for the difference level of schooling.
     2.   Pedagogical knowledge
Professional aspects of teaching.
     3.   Pedagogical content knowledge
Relationship between pedagogical and content knowledge such as selection of an appropriate approach in accordance with the nature of the subject student’s background and environment.
     4.   Context knowledge
An awareness of the social, economic and economical atmosphere of the society and institution.

Meaning of learning

Learning is the process of acquiring knowledge, skills and attitude/value by study, experience or instruction.

Theories of learning

     1.   Behaviorist theory of learning
Learning is defined in the behavior of the learner. Eg Pavlov dogs.

     2.   Cognitive theories
It focus on the inner mental activities.
To understand how people learn.
Learning is defined as change in learner’s schemata. Schema is an internal knowledge structure.

     3.   Constructionist
The learner is an information constructor.
People actively create or construct their own subject representation of objective reality. (Jean Brunner.)

     4.   Humanism
Leaning is viewed as personal act to fulfill one potential. It focus on human freedom, dignity and potential.

Piaget stages of cognitive development

     1.   Sensorimotor stage 0-2 years
Learning by looking, touching and sucking.
Experience of the world through senses and actions.

     2.   Preoperational stage 2-7 years
Uses language and symbol.
Language development.

     3.   Concrete operations stage 7-11 years
Better understanding of mental operations.
Children start thinking logically about concrete events.

     4.   Formal operation stage 12 up

Ways on how different people learn

     1.   Visual learner
They learn through seeing.
They may think in pictures and learn best from visual displays including, diagrams, and illustrated, textbooks and videos.

     2.   Verbal/auditory learners
They learn actively through verbal lectures discussions.
They prefer to hear or read the information.
They look for explanation with words.

     3.   Tactile/kinesthetic learners
Learn through moving, doing and touching.
Prefer manipulate objects, do physical experiments and learn by trying.

Teaching/learning model

Before teaching
     -      Select topic.
     -      Understand different characteristics of students.
     -      Think of various approach.

During teaching

     -      Choose an approach.
     -      Carry out accord nary
     -      Evaluate students. Learn through assessment.

Types of teaching approaches   

     1.   Transmission teaching approaches
     2.   Interactive and transformative approaches

Transmission teaching approach

     1.   Lecture method
Process of delivering a body of knowledge. Students listen and take down notes.

     1.   Efficient for presenting facts or idea in a relatively short-time.
     2.   Suitable for introducing subject.
     3.   Convenient method for instructing large group.
     4.   Suitable for supplicating material from other sources.


     1.   Students become passive rather than being active.
     2.   Encourage one way communication.
     3.   Does not create creativity to learners.

Drill and practice

Technique which are carried out, after the initial teaching have taken place. Drill emphasize is on repetition for the purpose of memorizing.

     1.   Effective for extending associates and skills.
     2.   Efficient in refining skills and abilities that learned.
     3.   They develop one ability to memorize.
     4.   Provide a basic formation on which higher level cognitive skills are built.

     1.   Tend to become boring.
     2.   High motivation may be difficult to develop due to repetition.
     3.   May degenerate into a mere rate learning.


It combines, telling, showing and doing for the benefit of the learners.

Used to teach the learners how to perform manipulative operations.

Advantage of demonstrations
     1.   Useful for both large sized and small classes.
     2.   The use of expensive equipment’s can be maximized.

     1.   Is not good for kinesthetic people.
     2.   There is less reinforcement of teaching points if it used alone.

Interactive and transformative approaches

Discussions, role play, field trips, independent projects, simulations, dramatization, brainstorming and games.


Take place into different forms such as:
Whole class discussions
Small group discussions
Panel discussion
Class discussion involve the entire class.
The teacher become the leader of the discussion.
This method is suitable for small classes.

Advantages of class discussion
     1.   Student practice oral communication skills.
     2.   Pull the idea and experience from the group.
     3.   Effective after a presentation.

Disadvantage of class discussion
     1.   Few people can dominate.
     2.   Time consuming.
     3.   Not practical for a class with many students.

Small group discussions
Involve dividing the class into small groups.

It is useful for matured learners.

Teacher appoint a group leader and record for each group.

The recorder report to the class the summary of point discussed.

Size of group, more than three and less than 7 is productive.

Panel discussion
Involve four or five students assigned to give a few minutes talk about different aspect of a chosen topic.

Advantages of panel discussion
Can provide better discussion.

Frequent changes of speaker keep attention.

Limitation of panel discussion
Subject may not be in logical order.

Some students will lack attention when saw the students they know are presenting.


Two group of speakers talks for or against the action.

Role of debate to students
     1.   Require the students to place themselves in a particular situation or role.

Limitation of debate
     1.   Not appropriate for large groups.
     2.   People may feel threatened.


Designed to stimulate creative thinking.

Encourage full participation as all ideas are recorded.

Who is complete may continue with evaluation of ideas.

One idea can spark off other ideas.

Limitation of brainstorming
Can be unfocused.

Need to be limited, 5-7 minutes.

Field trip

Organized visits to point of interests outside of classroom.
Learners will see in reality or practice what they have studied in class.

Advantages of field trips
     1.   It provide first hand learning experiences.

     2.   It makes learning more meaningful and lasting.

     3.   Can make the learners develop interests of the subject.

Disadvantage of field trips
     1.   It involve transport costs.
     2.   Traveling itself can be a risk.
     3.   A lot of administrative works are involved in organizing.
     4.   Time consuming and it may interrupt school time table.

Project method

Is essentially learning designed and conducted by students under the guidance of teacher.

The student more autonomy in deciding what or how she/he is to learn.

Writing a history of a local community.

Advantage of project method
     1.   Encourage creativity.
     2.   Give experience in planning and organizing.
     3.   Provide a natural approach of learning.

Disadvantage of project method
     1.   It need time.
     2.   It is expensive.
     3.   Scheduling the project is challenging.

Verbal presentation technique in classroom
     1.   Loudness of the voice.
     2.   Positioning of the presenter.
     3.   Reasonable movement.
     4.   The use of gesture.
     5.   The use of reinforcement.

Loudness of voice
Adopt the volume of your voice to situation you are in.

Check how quickly or slowly you can speak.

Think about pitch or tone of your voice.

Your voice must convey strength, confidence and warmth.

Face your audience when you are speaking.

Do not read your notes or presentation.

It is perfectly acceptable to pause at points during presentation.

Reasonable movement
Use the classroom as a stage.

Move around to engage and interact with your learners.

Do not stand on one spot the entire time.

Move with purpose, do not move aimlessly.

Use gestures and facial expression
It help to explain, emphasize and communicate.

Make eye contact with your audience.

Use body language at your audience. Make sure the class is with you.

When the verbal and non-verbal message are contradictory, most people will believe the non-verbal.

Ability of the speaker to read the audience and speaking strategies impact transmission of the message.

Use of questions
     1.   To find out something one did not know.

     2.   To find out whether someone knows something.

     3.   To develop ability to think.

     4.   To motivate student learning.

     5.   To provide drill and practice.

     6.   To help students organize materials.

     7.   To emphasize important points.

Characteristics of good questions
     1.   Clear, brief, concise and direct.
     2.   Thought provoking.
     3.   Suited to the age, abilities and interest of the learners.

Technique for questioning
     1.   Important question should be prepared in advance
     2.   Question should be asked in a conservation manner.
     3.   Question should be addressed in a whole class.
     4.   Do not repeat question unless there is a reason.
     5.   Question should be fairly equally distributed to the member of class.
     6.   Use wait time for student to think of a response or question to ask.

Handling student answers

     1.   Accept all genuine answers sincerely but only approve correct one.
    2.   Don’t make students feel afraid to make mistakes but do not encourage them to guess.
     3.   Use fellow up question, in case student are not answering.
     4.   Answers in union like class should not be allowed.

Bloom taxonomy of learning

Bloom taxonomy of learning outcomes is divided into three taxonomy which are:
The cognitive domain.
The affective domain. (Feeling)
The psychomotor domain. (Doing, hands)

The cognitive domain bloom taxonomy



To know specific forms, facts, concept, principles and theories.
Knowledge is to bring to mind or to remember.
Question asked are:
What did the book say about.
Define, list, who invented?

Ability to capture the meaning.
May be seen from translating material from one form to another.
Questions asked:
What does the picture mean?
State in your own words.
What reasons are evidence?
Comprehension is to understand, interpret, compare, contrast or explain.

To apply knowledge to new situation so as to solve problems.
If you know a and b, how can you determine c?
What will happen if?

To understand the organizational structure, to pull meaning from parts relations and organizing principles.
Ability to break materials to its components parts.
It is not you who break things but the brain.
It involve to understand the content and structure of the material.
Example, what was the author purposes, bias or prejudice?
Which are facts, which are opinions.

To put parts together to form a new hole.
Example, to collect information together to make a speech.
To write a proposal.
Example, can you develop a new way? Make up, what will you do if?

Is to be able to judge something.
Define the idea or the Kilimo Kwanza policy.

Use of teaching aids
They are helpful tools for teaching a classroom with individual learners.
They are used to reinforce an idea, skill or any other new information.
They can be visual or audio or both visual and audio.
They support the presentation of the teacher in the lesson.
The can be inform of text, cartoons, graphs, photographs, maps or other real objects.
They also include videos, DVD’s and audio tape.

Using visual aid
Talk to your audience and not to the material.
Do not use visual aid unless they serve a clear purpose.
Use the aid to support and not as a substitution.
For a verbal presentation:
Use a pointer if necessary.
Coordinate the audio and visual.
Design your visual with clarity and simplicity in mind.

Effective use of chalk board
Write big enough to be seen to the back of the room.
Think of organizational of materials on the board.
Fill one part of a board at a time.
Do not scrunch in wards at the bottom of the board or in the margin.
Underline or mark major points.
Use colored chalks to emphasize points.

Module 4

Developing classroom management skills
Meaning of management
Management is to handle, direct, govern or control in action or use.
Classroom management refer to organization of learners, space, time and material for learning to take place effectively.

Classroom management involve two levels
     1.   Prevention of problems
Organizing instructions.
Setting rules and procedures.
Establishing positive relationship.
Setting the learning environment.

     2.   Response to disruptions or problem
Nonverbal response.
Verbal response.
Penalties or punishment.

Why classroom management?

-      Minimize instructional time.
-      Make learners attentive.
-      Facilitate appropriate use of materials.
-      Prevent destruction of properties.
-      Ensure securities for learners.
-      May lead to good learning outcomes.

Prevention of disruptions
-      Organization of instructions.
-      Characteristics of instructions.
-      How are lesson introduced.
-      Are student given a preview of what is to be covered?
-      Are pre requisite concepts or previously covered materials reviewed?
-      Did the teacher capture and keep students attentive?

  Notes Hazijafika Mwisho, Gusa Hapa Kupata Notes Zote kwa Tsh. 2,000/= tu.

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