History Form Four Examination 2023 1

Logo showing a book within diamond and words written Mwalimu Makoba Open School

Time: 3 Hours


1. This paper consists of section A, B and C with a total of nine questions.

2. Answer all questions in section A and B and three questions from section C.

3. Section A carries 20 marks; section B carries 35 marks and section C carries 45 marks.

4. Cellular phones and any unauthorized materials are not allowed in the examination room.

5. All drawings should be in pencil.

6. Write your examination number on every page of your answer booklet(s).

Section A (20 Marks)

Answer all questions in this section.

1. For each of the item (i)-(xv), choose the correct answer from among the given alternatives and write its letter beside the item number in the answer booklet provided. 

(ii) Who studies the society's cultural system, behavior, beliefs and ideologies?

A Archaeologists B Linguists C Anthropologists D Humanitarians E Philanthropists

(ii) By 1914, European powers had managed to establish effective colonial control in Africa. In which decade was that year?

A First decade of the nineteenth century

B Fourteenth decade of the nineteenth century

C Nineteenth decade of the fourteenth century

D Second decade of the nineteenth century

E Second decade of the twentieth century

(iii) Which revolution was featured by fraternity, liberty and equality as its core ideas?

A Egyptian revolution B Industrial revolution C Zanzibar revolution D Libyan revolution E French revolution

iv) Whose theory explains the 'origin of man by describing the changes that our ancestors undergone until they were like a modern man?

A Louis Leakey B Mary Leakey C Australopithecus D David Livingstone E Charles Darwin

(v) Which nation could no longer exploit the United States of America after getting her political independence in 1776?

A Britain B Russia C Germany D Japan E France

(vi) Samora Machel and Augustino Neto took up arms to fight against foreign domination during the 1970s. Whose colonial rule were they fighting against?

A British B German C French D Portuguese E Belgian

(vii) Who was the first British man to round the Cape of Good Hope?

A Vasco da Gama B Bartholomew Diaz

C Francis Drake D Ferdinand Magellan

E David Livingstone

(viii) In which countries did armed struggle characterize their independence struggle?

A Zanzibar, Zimbabwe and Ghana B Zimbabwe, Kenya and Mozambique C Zimbabwe, South Africa and Tanganyika D Kenya, Zimbabwe and Tanganyika E Mozambique, Angola and Ghana

(ix) All of the following are true about Julius Nyerere except:

A He was one of the Pan-Africanism leaders.

B He was one of the founders of Organization of African Unity.

C He played a key role in the formation ot United Nations Organization.

D He campaigned and supported black majority rule in South Africa.

E He was one of the leaders of the Front-Line States.

(x) Why did the United States of America not accept membership of the League of Nations though she pioneered its formation?

A She was invited as an overseer; thus, she had no role to play.

B She did not like to be involved in European issues

C She had a weakened economy due to the impact of the First World War

D She feared that Germany under Adolf Hitler would attack her

E She was still feeling the shame she suffered in the Berlin conference

(xi) All of the following are true about Zimbabwe except

A Robert Mugabe declared unilateral independence in Zimbabwe.

B Jan Smith unilaterally declared independence in 1965.

C ZANU and ZAPU were the major political parties.

D Zimbabwe attained her independence in 1980.

E Zimbabwe was a British colony.

(xii) Who named the Southern tip of Africa "Cape of Good Hope?"

A Vasco da Gama B Prince Henry C Cecil Rhodes D John Moffat

E Bartholomew Diaz

(xiii) What took place in Europe between 1750s and 1850s?

A Industrial revolution B Scramble for Africa C Mercantile Capitalism D Emergence of slave trade E Monopoly capitalism

(xiv) Who headed the central government of the colony?

A Queen B Governor C Secretary for colonies D Secretary general E Minister for colonies

(xv) Which of the following functions was performed by African chiefs under indirect rule?

A collection of tax B loading cash crops into ships D advising the governor D promoting internal capital export E organizing election of the colonial officials

2. Match the responsibilities in List A with the corresponding leaders in List B by writing the letter of the correct response beside the item number in the answer booklet provided.

List A

List B

(i) He pioneered the idea of forming a stronger African organization in the 1990s.

(ii) He formulated 14 points of the league of Nations.

(iii) He ordered in the final solution that the Jewish population should be eliminated.

(iv) The Italian fascist who provoked the Second World War.

(v) He chaired the conference which aimed at resolving the conflicts among the European powers in 19th Century.

A Woodrow Wilson

B Otto von Bismark

C David Livingstone

D Cecil Rhodes

E Adolf Hitler

F Muammar Gaddafi

G Benito Mussolini

H Carl Peters

Section B (35 Marks)

Answer all questions in this section.

3. Answer the following questions briefly:

(i) Differentiate between mixed farming and shifting cultivation.

(ii) Why is HIV/AIDS regarded as a burden to health services provision in Africa?

(iii) What is the difference between direct rule and indirect rule?

(iv) What is the name of Maasai group aged 18-44 years old.

(v) Explain one factor which lead to Ngoni migration.

(vi) Explain two things which were destroyed by colonialist during introduction of colonial economy.

4. Arrange the following statements in a chronological order by writing number 1 to 6 beside the item number in your answer booklet(s).

(i) Chief Lobengula and Mtwa Mkwawa resisted actively against the imposition of colonial rule in Africa.

(ii) Piet Retief and Jan Van Rensburg were the leaders of the trekking parties in South Africa.

(iii) David Livingstone was one of the influential individuals in Europe who encouraged the creation of overseas empires.

(iv) Kwame Nkrumah and Jomo Kenyatta were the most effective and vocal spokesmen for Africa during Pan-Africanist conference held in Manchester.

(v) Julius and Kenneth Kaunda were the prominent leaders of the Front-Line States during decolonization in Southern Africa.

(vi) President Benjamin Mkapa and Yoweri Museveni were the key leaders who signed the treaty to create the new East African Community.

5. Draw a sketch map of Africa and locate the following by using roman numbers:

(i) A country whose military force took part in the military campaign against the forces of Idi Amin in 1978.

(ii) An East African country that had the only institution offering higher education until the 1960s.

(iii) A country which was connected by a new railway line from Tanzania through the assistance of the Chinese (ii) government.

(iv) A British colony that attained her political independence in 1957.

(v) A Portuguese colony that adopted a socialist economic strategy.

Section C (45 Marks)

Answer three questions from this section.

6. Why did France apply assimilation policy in her colonies in Africa? Explain by giving six points.

7. “Colonial economy had its own objectives.” Substantiate this statement by giving six points.

8. Explain six importance of African nationalism.

9. The discovery of iron was very beneficial to man. Justify this statement by giving six points.



(i) C

(ii) E

(iii) E

(iv) E

(v) A

(vi) D

(vii) C

(viii) B

(ix) C

(x) A

(xi) A

(xii) E

(xiii) A

(xiv) B

(xv) D


(i) F

(ii) A

(iii) E

(iv) G

(v) B


(i) Mixed farming is an agricultural practice that involves the cultivation of multiple crops and the rearing of livestock on the same farm while shifting cultivation is a form of farming, where farmers cultivate the land then leave it and find another land.

(ii) HIV/AIDS is regarded as a burden to health service provision in Africa because governments allocate funds towards purchasing antiretroviral drugs (ARVs), for instance, in order to assist individuals living with HIV/AIDS.

(iii) Direct rule is a system of governance in which a central authority, typically a colonial power, exercises direct control and authority over a territory or colony. In this system, the colonial power establishes its own administrative structure and institutions in the colonized territory while Indirect rule, on the other hand, is a system of governance in which a colonial power delegates authority and administration to local indigenous leaders for example chiefs to govern the colony.

(iv) MORAN

(v) One factor which lead to Ngoni migration was the Mfecane war which was caused by Shaka Zulu.

(vi) Two things which were destroyed by colonialist during introduction of colonial economy were: African culture and industries.


(i) 3

(ii) 2

(iii) 1

(iv) 4

(v) 5

(vi) 6


Sketch map of Africa withi romans number inside.
Sketch Map of Africa locating Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Ghana and Mozambique

6 Assimilation policy was an administrative system which absorbed the Africans into the citizenship of the colonizing powers. France started to colonize Africa in 19th Century, and they colonized areas like: Cameroon and Ivory Coast. The following were reasons for France application of assimilation policy:

Higher percentage of the converted Christian: It was easy to accept the assimilation policy applied by the government in their country.

French revolution of 1789: This revolution overthrew the dictatorship government of King Louis XVI. The revolution created France which respected the right of man on the principles of liberty, equality and fraternity. The parliament in Paris made a decision that all people in the colonies had to be treated equally by the imposition of assimilation policy.

To avoid resistance: Many Africans could consider themselves as equal with the Frenchmen in the colony without knowing that they were under the colonial rule.

Frenchmen wanted to get a class of black Frenchmen: who could be used to serve in different sectors. Example of those sectors are education, business and administration.

To justify France's colonial rule. The French government often justified its colonial rule by arguing that it was bringing the benefits of French civilization to its colonial subjects. By assimilating these subjects into French culture, the French government could argue that it was fulfilling its civilizing mission.

To create a more loyal colonial population. The French government believed that if its colonial subjects were assimilated into French culture, they would be more loyal to France and would be less likely to rebel. This was especially important in the early days of French colonialism, when there were a number of rebellions against French rule.

To create a more unified French empire. The French government believed that by assimilating its colonial subjects into French culture, it would create a more unified and cohesive empire. This would make it easier to govern the colonies and would also help to spread French culture and values around the world.

Finally, France applied assimilation policy in her colonies in Africa so as to exploit Africans by creating a more loyal colonial population. Colonialism was an evil and impoverished the Africans.

Jipatie Majibu yote ya Mtihani Huu, Wasiliana Nasi kwa Kugusa Hapa

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