Science and Technology in Development | General Studies

Plane wing

Science is knowledge about the natural world that is based on facts learned through experiments and observation. On the other hand, technology is the application of scientific knowledge.

Science includes the departments of learning and bodies of fact in disciplines such as anthropology, archaeology, astronomy, biology, botany, chemistry, cybernetics, geography, geology, mathematics, medicine, physics, physiology, psychology, social science, sociology, and zoology.

Technology include: Internet, cell phones, computers, artificial intelligence and many other technology.

Relationship between science and technology

Science and technology are interrelated as described:

1. Technology can influence the course of scientific research and that scientific discoveries can influence technological development.

2. Technology develop from scientific research.

3. Science sets the stage for technology which produces useful devices like computers and television.

4. Science knowledge is applied to improve and even to predict technologies. For instance, the flow of information is from science to technology and vice versa.

Major development in science and technology

Scientific development has long history: people of Egypt discovered calendar so they were able to forecast weather.

They also discovered diagnosis, medical examination and treatment procedures.

People of Meroe and Engaruka basin discovered iron and its uses.

They also learned anatomy physiology.

The following are examples of scientific discovery:

-      Solar system. This was produced by Ptolemy in 150 BC.

-      Discovery of ocean tides was caused by the moon. This was discovered by Seleucus of Seleucia in 150 BC.

-      Telescopic observation in 1610, discovered by Galileo Galilei.

-      Laws of motion, law of universal gravitational, discovered by Isaac Newton.

-      Theory on how blood circulate by William Harvey in 1628.

-      Launching of artificial satellite in 1957 by the Soviet Union.

-      U.S explore the moon in 1969.

The major development in science and technology are:

1. Information technology such as: internets, mobile phones, television etc.

2. Space research technology, this include exploration of the space in order to obtain some information which is useful to the life of man. Such exploration have been conducted in different areas such as the moon and other planets such as Mars.

3. Solar energy technology, it is the use of energy from the sun to provide heat and generate electricity.

The concept of development

Development is the improvement of life of majority citizens in a given nation. Also, development can be defined as, how rich or poor a country is.

Role of sustainable development in building quality life

Sustainable development refer to economic development that is conducted without depletion of natural resources. The role of sustainable development in building quality life is:

- It leads to improved access to social services.

- It increase employment opportunities.

- It contribute to conservation of resources, so there is proper utilization of resources.

- It creates awareness on how to use resources for development without compromising the future generation rights.

The role of science and technology in development (improvement of modern industries and provision of social services and sustainable development)

1. Improving agriculture

There is food security because of presence of raw materials. This is due to the use of fertilizers, insecticides and mechanization.

2. Increasing the speed used by reducing time taken to accomplish a task

Science and technology had played a big role in this. For instance, the use of tractors in cultivation makes the work to be completed fast compared to the person who uses a hand hoe.

3. Increasing knowledge

Knowledge is increased through the provision of advanced education using latest teaching materials like Audio Visual teaching such television and computers.

4. Improvement of health services

This is through the use of modern machine like X-rays, ultrasound diagnosis and others.

5. Preservation of raw materials

Measures like afforestation and recycling help to preserve minerals, forests and clean air.

6. Preservation of the environment

By using science and technology, environment are protected against pollution from industries, farms, home, hospitals and other areas.

Role of the government in promoting the development of science and technology in our country

1. Formulation of good policies

The government should formulate good policies that will encourage the development of science and technology. For example, motivating innovators.

2. Encourage local industry

If we stimulate our industries, we will be able to make progress in science and technology. Our factories can manufacture products such as soap, clothing and household appliances.

3. Industrial espionage

Espionage means imitation of technology without being permitted by the owners of the said technology. Many countries practice industrial espionage including China and France.

4. Licensing of technology

This is done through agreement which allows receptors to employ technology acquired from abroad.

5. Privatization policy

Privatization enables the government to learn new technology brought by private investors. In Tanzania, private investors have been encouraged to invest in different sectors such as industry, mining, transportation and other sectors.

6. Establish state-owned industries

State-owned enterprises will encourage the growth of science and technology. Through these industries, the government will manufacture cars, telephones, computers and other equipment.

Transfer of technology

Transfer of technology, is the process of transferring technology from the person or organization that owns or holds it to another person or organization, in an attempt to transform inventions and scientific outcomes into new products and services that benefit society.

Means by which science and technology can be transferred from developed world to the developing countries

1. Training nationals abroad

Here, a country send workers abroad for the aim of increasing efficiency in work places. When they are learning, they imitate several scientific knowledge and skills and bring the acquired knowledge to their respective countries.

2. Importing foreign experts

Foreign experts come with their technology. Native who work with them, observe and imitate what foreigners do. Through this they imitate and gain access to new technology.

3. Industrial espionage

At this point, the country is spying on developed countries technology and taking it without permission.

4. Licensing of technology

This is agreement which allows receipts to employ technology acquired from abroad.

5. Privatization policy

Privatization enables the government to learn new technology brought by private investors. In Tanzania, private investors have been encouraged to invest in different sectors such as industry, mining, transportation and other sectors.

Problems hindering the development of science and technology in Tanzania

1. Lack of encouragement to local technocrats who discover and invent machine tools

Local technocrats have been lacking in motivation for their inventions. This discourages them so they give up.

2. Dependency of foreign technology

This process has built the notion to the people that materials from abroad are the best compared to the local goods.

3. Lack of enough fund

Lack of fund hinders many scientific researches as these researches require a high amount of money.

4. Lack of good governance

Bad government does not invest in scientific development. Here leaders work for their own interests.

Problems related to the transfer of technology into our country

1. Foreign technology is expensive

A poor country has to spend little foreign currency available to buy the machines and to pay experts.

2. Technological dependence

Importing technology from other countries has made us depend on technology from developed countries hence we fail to research for our own technology.

3. Deculturalization

Televisions, computers, newspaper, and internet lead to loss of respect, change in dressing styles and drug abuse.

4. Unemployment

Technology increase unemployment. For example, self-driving cars, reduce driving vacancies.

5. Civil war

Weapons making technology has led to an escalation of civil war in African countries. For example: Congo, Libya and Somalia.

6. Environmental degradation

Industries produce toxic gases and chemical which are not good for our environment. Toxic produces are reason for global warming and loss of soil fertility.

Revisions Questions

1. The increase of productivity of the agricultural sector in Tanzania entails effective utilization of Science and Technology. Justify this statement with six points. (NECTA, 2015)

2. Giving six points, examine the contributions of science and technology in socio-economic Development. (NECTA, 2016)

3. Critically analyse six major contributions of science and technology in the developing country like Tanzania. (NECTA, 2017)

4. Demonstrate six ways through which science and technology can be employed to improve agriculture in Tanzania. (NECTA, 2018)

5. Justify the argument that, science and technology has contributed much to human development in the contemporary world. (NECTA, 2019)

6. In six points, account for the failure of developing countries like Tanzania in developing their technological capacity. (NECTA, 2020)

7. Critically examines any six demerits of technological transfer from developed countries to the developing countries like Tanzania. (NECTA, 2021)

8. The advancement of technology has benefited people in numerous ways, but it has also created serious problems. Describe six serious undesirable effects of modern technology. (NECTA, 2014)

9. Describe six challenges associated with imported technology from developed countries to developing countries like Tanzania. (NECTA, 2013)

10. Due to uneven global distribution of technology, the transfer of technology is unavoidable phenomenon for the developing countries like Tanzania. Explain how technology is transferred by providing six points. (NECTA, 2012)

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