HI 364 Seminar Questions | Industrialization in Britain

Historical Site

1. Identify the qualitative difference between poor law system and welfare

States as the alternative approaches to dealing with social disadvantage:

Poor law system.

Welfare state influenced by:

Inquiries and publications.

Difference between poor law system and the welfare state

- Poor law was under the parish and the church while welfare were under inquires and publications.

- Poor law system was selectivity’s while welfare aimed making social services.

- Poor law based on charities while welfare had no charities.

- Poor law based on basic needs

Aimed to improve basic needs.

Welfare based on improving provision of basic needs.

- Welfare state served as a major peace to advance democracy.

Led to recognition of formation of cooperative unions.

- Poor law was direct response to solve the increase of poverty in Britain.

Administered under the church.

Decision was final.

Increase of expenditure which led to welfare focused to end poverty to all people welfare.

Assisting the poor is the responsibility of state

It does not deny charity.

2. Examine the dimension of English agricultural revolution prior to onset of industrial revolution. How far can we say that the development of the former set the stage for the emergence of the latter?

The dimension

Open field system

Developed from the womb of the open field system.

Revolution was based on use of new methods of farming.

Crop rotation.

Use of mechanization of labor.

The use of technological innovation.

E.g. Dutch plough.

Went hand in hand is simple innovation.

How far can we say that the development of the former set the stage for the emergence of the letter?

- Through the increase activity later.

Increased the stage of the latter.

- Through increase of population in England.

Demand high production.

After people get food they think on reproduction.

- Expand and increase of market

People started to purchase outside England.

- England brought a progressive higher improvement of machine.

3. A commercial revolution was the pre-condition for the rise of British industrial revolution; comment.

Characteristics of commercial revolution

- Increase of trade across the sea.

- Development of navigation and exploration.

- Acceptance of principle of mercantilism.

Industrial revolution

- Economic change that turned.

- Complex of technological innovation.

Industrial revolution was drastic and dramatically change.


- Commercial revolution extended the market.

- Creation of banks

It created the banks. Banker provided money.

Checking account.

Creation of joint stock companies.

Promoted English trade with Asia.

- Insured availability of raw materials

Keep competition in industrial production.

Sugar, spices, cotton are example of raw materials.

Product were exported out of England which increased more.

- The development of commercial cities, like Manchester and London.

- The provision of entrepreneurship in finance or capital to industrial.

- Led to increase of population.

Ensured availability of goods.

Increase of demands like cigarettes.

Availability of labor.

Industrial revolution brought both negative and positive effects.


Problems of the people.

Poor working condition.

Environment pollution.

4. How did the roles of working women change in the industrial revolution?

Viking women entered in England.

Engaged in working cow.

They engaged in vegetables.

Then roles were just small activities.

During industrial revolution the role changes.

Women started working in urban industries.

Women from low class.

Other work as domestic.

Women weren’t to work in mines with chain.

They worked until the mine act of 1842.

Prohibited women to work in coal mine.

Women started to engage actively in commercial activities.

Example: 10% women among business were females.

Others were widows.

Women started participating in political arena.

Before women had no right.

Women role changed to prostitution

Sex business was legalized.

Women were required to be registered as prostitute, this was after the eruption of syphilis disease.

Government contagious

Direct act of 1854.

These contaminated disease were taken to hospital by force.

Women started to play a role in advertisement.

Women role changed in education.

Women started going to school.

They engaged in other professional like teacher, doctors.

Increased girl enrolment to schools.

Poor family failed to send their children, even the education was free, they were taken to work.


Increase of employments.

Women were required political rights.

Family disintegration.

Movement from rural to urban.

Bad morals were rampant and increase of sexual transmitted diseases.

The year of 1766 whereby the county riot because of shortage of land.

In urban there were three major protest

Ant-Irish riots

Took place in 1736. It happened in East London.

The Irish people were attacked by the English people, because were employed in London.

They attacked the Irish houses.

Irish clubs.

Irish Bars.

Wilkite riots. This occurred in the year 1760-1770.

This was in support of John who was a radical champion of political.

The guy was imprisoned by the government.

Riots of the Goldon riots

This was ant-catholic appraise, against the catholic relief act.

The riot led by George Goldon who was the president of the protestant association.

The Luddism 1811-1830

Refer to the series of working class movement which was characterized by machine breaking.

5. Why does E.P Thompson consider the radical movement of the 1790’s as part of the struggle of the English working class?

Class is not a structure or category.

It something which happen.

Class into three groups

English working class born in violence.

1791 radical emergence

Radical attract journals and newspapers.

Radicalism was the first political movement.

Led by lower middle class.

Radicalism were against the rulers.


Relationship of ruler society.

How considered as part of struggle?

Move from subjective to objective

New industrial discipline.

Why he termed as part of struggle?

He looked radicalism as defensive movement.

The dream to overthrow the society.

Grievances of soldier.

Act as important factor or force for liberation.

Degree of radicalism has influences.

Arose the issue of parliamentary reforms.

Led to the formation of political organisation.

Suggested to be courage as done by any doctrine.

Encouraged popular patriotic feelings in working class.

Act as a key factor for awareness and demand for equality.

Increase about the right of man which were forgotten.

Radical movement led to the emergence of church protestant, church challengers as well as Unitarian spirit.

6. Whereas Luddites acted merely out of instinctive hatred for machine, chartists manifested an unprecedented maturity of a class seeking of reconstruct British. Discuss this dictum.

Luddism was a secret movement.

Chartism was a political movement.

Why Luddite hated machine?

Machine caused unemployment.

Machine replaced human labor.

Invasion of machine caused underpayment in the workers.

Capitalist aim was to maximize profit.

Characteristics of Luddites

Factors which acted as catalyst to Luddites:

Role of literature

It created awareness about their right.

Luddism planted the root of Chartism. Chartism paved a way to the emergence of new working class.

Chartist manifested an uprece devited maturity:

They came with new ideas, example, six chartist’s demands:

Right to vote

Everyone with 21 years to vote.

Equal electoral district.

7. What was the role of the British state in defending the interest of the capital between 1790 and 1948?

Primitive ways like piracy, unequal exchange, rooting were employed in accumulation of capital.

Relation between capital and state.

Government introduced the Corn Law.

The law raised food price.

It imposed high price of import.

Ensured public and private ownership.

Railway infrastructure.

Supply of service and raw materials.

Government encourage sanitary control.

Maintain proper sanitary condition.

Encouraged the development of commerce in the state.

Internal traders were not highly taxed.

Maintain market.

Promoting political stability.

Civil rights.


Promote compete individualism.

Insist that, every man should remain free, so that he can use his/her effort to sustain success.

Various competition from the European countries. Which led to the change of British Superpower.

8. From the last quarter of the 19th Century, Britain position as the first industrial nation turned out to be better on her ability to compete with the new industrial states notably Germany and the United states. Discuss.

Factors for decline of British

The impact of the Great London exhibition of 1851.

It exposed all her technology.

Visitor could watch the entire production.

The failure of Britain to cope with the new in ….. for commercial profitability.

Scientific research for industry.

New ones required large capital.

Few giant firms

Some forms started to undergo bankrupt.

Corruption destroyed them.

Failed to manage the internal market.

Britain neglected technical and scientific education.

Britain In 1912 had only few graduated in science.

Failure to transform the oversea trade.

Failed to transform formal and informal

Parasitic economy.

Failed with new industrial state like the USA.

Conservativeness of the British society.

Many industries put their capital but gained nothing.

She wanted to maintain.

Feared to lose the capital.

Effect of protectionist policies:

British were becoming parasite.

She failed to regulate the manufacture goods.

The result of decolonization policy.

British lost the colonies.

USA emerged as a super power.

Effect of economic depression of 1873-1896.

The effects of the World Wars.

Thinking about attacking the enemies instead of building her economy.

It was penalized by the League of Nations.

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