HI 364 | Industrialization and the Rise of the Working Class

Ship Sailing

Industrialization or industrial revolution is about very complex process that change to modern life and all aspect.

Building industry does not mean industrial revolution.

Britain is taken as a case study in this topic because:

This is the first country to industrialize in the world.
Britain the process of industrialization has unique comparison to other countries.

Britain experience from internal dynamism to external dynamism.

Major themes
Industrialization and industrial revolution deal with history change from agrarian society to industrial society.

Industrial economic growth or industrial development deal with three important things:

The rate of economic growth is going. (Speed/pace).

If economic slowdown, there is sign of negative to industrial development.

Industrial doesn’t always supported by higher economic growth and speed.

Have human power over the nature.

Population change two ways:
1.   To rate on its increase.

2.   Distribution.

Higher rate of population increase cause the industrial development.

In distribution if more people living in rural area are talking about risk of the country but if more people living in urban areas were talking about development of the country.

Population distribution tell about the industrial development of the country.

Population distribution tell about the industrial development of the country. 

Example in Britain 1860 people living in town.

Characteristics of class relations

1.   People living together as relative as family. This is risk of country. In developed countries, people are not live like family or relatives.

2.   Transformation from social to classical formation of another new class.

Industrialization and the state or industrialization and polities.

-      Industrialization also transform a political system.

-      Also there is new political institution (with industrialization.)

Transition from feudalism to capitalism

Feudalism according to Carl Marx, is the second mode of production which base on exploitation of man by man based on land as major means of production.


A system based on land and services.

-      Talking about two class coexisting
a. Lords (own the land)
b. Tenants (provide services)

Karl Marx
A political system in which land as major means of production which own by lords. According to him this is exploitation system.

Feudal England

Has been very much conservative, specific time in 1066 A.D
Change of the England society.

England conquered by Norman in 1066 when King William I.

Feudal England started change in political system after Norman Conquest in 1066 A.D

Features of feudal England

1.   Feudal in England and other feudal in other country based on two things:
a)   Land
b)   Services
Why land – constituted principle live hood mean (the major means of life, power, authority and wealth.)

Land permitted the power authority and wealth.

Why services?

There are lords who enjoy the service because they have land.

Peasant has to provide services. (The way of enjoy of ownership).

In England land was by law owned by King. (All land was Crown land.)

The king granted land to the Aristocracy (lords and some lords who were vassals, they do the following:

     I.        Preaching loyalty to the king

   II.        They rendered military

  III.        Paid taxes

Aristocracy: this is the law who governed the peasant or cultivators.
Peasant were under aristocracy and vassal law.

There were two types of peasants:

     I.      Free peasants

   II.        Serfs

There were kind of lands accessed by peasants:

     I.        Minority land. (manorial)

   II.        Monastic

  III.        Common land

Manorial land
-      The land that coordinate land lords and serfs.

-      That land gave power and authorit to the lords
-      It was powered by manorism
-      Demesne refer to possession of land.

-      King give land to the serfs in exchange serf give service.

-      This land defined the power and authority of the lord.

-      Sometime peasant paid tax or drafted to army services.

Monastic land (the church land)

Church was part of political economic structures.

Up to 16th century delivered its authority from Rome.

The land was rented to the peasant.

Peasant worked and paid as serfes.

Church was attracted income form the tithe.

Common land

It was the land that was a public land.

No any qualification to own the land.

Peasant had free access to this land for public activities. For example, supplemental crop production, grazing, fishing hunting.

Peasant built their squatter in these area.

Peasant was independent from any obligation (restriction).

The land was closed as it got commercial value.

Second features of feudal England

Urban factor
English was rural in nature
Feudalism at the same time, experience the development of towns.

Some town developed independent and were dominated by artisans.

Guild system was the system, the relatively characterized by relatively close organization, the entry into which was strictly controlled.

(People were not allowed to enter in trade without some amount of trading.)
In town those people were free to move, to select, to decide etc

3.   Nature of feudal production
Production was only for consumption.

Peasant were producing for subsistence.

Many produced for their immediate use: conspicuous, lavish and extravagant.
There were no conscious effect to accumulate capital, there were no any exchange.

4.   Political system
Decentralization of power
Political arrangement was mainly parcellised.

King was just the ceremonial figure but the power was to the lords.

However overtime there was development of central authority led to absolutism.

In this system lord became dependent to the monarchy.

In England it started in the Normandy congest in 1066.

Then Normandy conquered England they changed the system.

5.   Social nexus
It was characterized by personal ties.

My serf is my own serf.

Relationship was made in personalities.

Political development during feudalism

Between 16th and 17th Century, shift from decentralized to centralized system was experienced.

There was expansion of political space which became more unified under central authority which means national unification.

Profits of shifting to centralization

1.   Development of larger national market.

2.   Pacification.

People started experiencing peace. Peacefully environment for trade.

3.   Development of legal system defending wealth.

4.   Increased capacity to defend national trading interests.

5.   Enable development of a national currency. System of uniform weight and measures.

Transition to capitalism in England

Meaning of capitalism:
Social economic and political system whereby major means of production are owned by individuals.

What were the forces behind this transition (from feudalism to capitalism.)
Feudalism is the mother of capitalism.

What is primitive accumulation of capital?

The first man to use this term was Carl Marx.

Primitive means the earliest way of accumulating capital.

Three contribution of accumulation of capital to transition

1.   Accumulation of massive capital. Motivated people with money to invest.

2.   Producers become dependent markers. (It created classes.)

Reasons for transition from feudalism to capitalism

Internal dynamics
Can be grouped into two groups:

Social economic development.

Political development.

Social economic development
The rise of market/commodity production.

How people entered in

     I.        Commutation
Money into use
People in England started demanding money.

Emergency of people who circulated money.

People were motivated on getting more cash.

   II.        Development of town and trade more development experienced
  III.        Development of commercial shipping rearing family.

Ship provided wool and wool product which were highly demanded especially in Belgium, Netherland.

 IV.        Rapid growth of population
It was around the 16th Century.

It caused commercialization.

  V.        The black death disease (bubonic plague)
It killed 1/3 of the British population.

It caused shortage of labour.

It increased labour mobility.

 VI.        Political development
Two stages but both are talking about centralization.

It was between 15th and 17th Century.

Stages of centralization (political development)

1.   15th – 17th Century, decentralized feudal structure.

Increasingly giving the way for centralization.

Period of loyal absolutism.

Begun in the
2.   Mid of 17th Century
Power shifted from monarchy to representative. (Parliamentary power)
It was sponsored by the commercial figures (bourgeoisie.)


1.   Market
2.   Pacification
3.   Parliament
4.   Protection
5.   Easier trading interests

Chronology of political development in England
1.   The war of roses
Between 1455-1485
This was the war caused by power struggle between feudal functions.

There were two functions of feudal

     I.        Conservative
Were the Lancastrians and
   II.        Yorkist
Yorkist were the progressive feudal.

Progressive feudal won the war.

Many lords died in this war.

After won the war, there was changes in the feudal system.

The war ended by the coming of stronger monarchy under the Tudor. Example, Henry Tudor VII, 15th – 17th.

With progressive feudal there was a change in alliance.

The alliance was between king and the merchant different from before where king and lords allied.

2nd political development


In 1531 King Henry declared himself as the head of the church. Therefore between 1676 and 1678. England 1536, resolution of monastery which was confiscation of properties like: church land and other properties.

Meaning of reformation
Before 16th Century the dominant church was Roman Catholic.

17th C some changes emerged, people challenged the Roman Catholic.

Protestantism begun for example, Martin Luther King.

Coming of Anglican.

Three other events

     I.        Breaking away of Rome.

II.  Confiscation of church property.

  III.        Theological revolution. People come up with protestant church.

Reformation ended up the power of Roman Catholic Church which was breaking away from feudal.

Political development
The decline of absolute monarchy
There was increasing friction between the monarchy and the upcoming bourgeoisie.

There was a breakaway of alliance.

Break away come up with three things.

Monarchy was been conservative and undemocratic.

The fiction ended up with civil war.


Progressive who wanted commercial interest won the war.

There were the parliamentary coming in.

People who brought change were bourgeoisie in transaction.

The period was a transitional period.

External factors of the transition

Development of overseas trade in England. This led to mercantilism.

What is mercantilism?

Mercantilism is a label, commonly given to the doctrine and sense of prices attributed to European national state from the 15 to 18th centuries regarding the nature and regulation of international economic relations.

Mercantilism basing on trading and banking.

It does not involve production, it facilitate exchange.

Putting out system

The seller sells but doesn’t produce.

Producers were the craftsmen, they were not buying or selling.

Bank was characterized by usury which means, money lending at higher interest.

Accumulation of precious metal was a priority. (Gold and silver.)

Every merchant was using every means to accumulate gold and silver.

Features of mercantilism

1.   National unification
2.   Protectionism
3.   Bullionism
4.   Colonial expansion
5.   National rivalry and competition/militarism
6.   Populations
Development of mercantilism in England had been experienced into two distinct phase:

The role of agriculture

Agrarian revolution before industrial revolution.

Agricultural revolution are the impact of agriculture.

First phase of mercantilism development mid-15th to mid-17th century.
1.   Was characterized by rapidly disintegration of feudalism.
2.   England experienced national unification.
3.   Development of new alliance
4.   Dominant trade was wool and woolen. The bigger market for wool was Flanders (Belgium).
5.   British mercantilism was characterized with journey to more distant countries. (People were sponsored to go far away).
After discovery of America in 1492, more adventures were sent looking for gold and silver.
6.   Militarism was very rampant
Before 1600, England main rival was Spain, they were competing over the control of Americans and the South Indies. The competition led to war in 1588.

 England won the war by defeating the Spanish Armada fleet war ship. The next was colonization of some places.

In 1607, England begun colonization of North America.

In 16520, England begun the colonization of West Indies.

After 1600, main England arrival was Holland (The Netherland). These two countries were competing over the control of India and East Indies led to misunderstanding.

By 1601, England won the war and established the first trade in East India. It was given to the company East India Company which was given a loya charter. The same year trade stations were established starting with Bombay.

Second phase

Mid 17th C mid and mid-18th Century
British mercantilism rose to prominence become the most powerful mercantile nation except France.

Why Britain became the most dominant in mercantilism

1.   At this time Britain had already underwent agrarian revolution, therefore had sufficient and extra food. She was free to concentrate on commercial development.

2.   The British monopoly of carrying trade. The most useful means of transport was shipping, established through the enactment of the navigation act.

1660 important navigation act both were path under Oliver Cromwell.

Provision of navigation act.

The trade between and her colonies were reserved for ships owned by either English or colonial shippers. When shippers got money, it was money for English.

Some specify commodities imported from Europe would only come into England in English ships. Other were heavily taxed the idea was to promote English ship.

There were a list of goods on enumerated list.

Goods produced in the colony were: sugar, cotton, tobacco, indigo, fur, calico.

These goods has to be exported outside of England.

Advantage of British Monopoly

     I.        It assured an abrupt supply of raw materials in England.
   II.        Led to the development of processing industrial
  III.        It increased the collection of custom revenues.
 IV.        It easily made the colonial economy to be interpreted to the British economy.

N.B from the late 17th C the dominant trade on England was the export trade, the major goods were:

Tobacco – America North
Sugar – Indies West
Pepper –
Cotton – India
Silk – China
In the 18th Century trade with Europe declined absolutely and colonial trade made giant rise.

British mercantilism was at its height when it was defeated in seven years wars. Between France and England over the control of Canada.

In 1753, French were defeated. (So he was unchallengeable.)

However the English mercantilism started declining after the independence of America in 1776.

What is the contribution of mercantilism to industrial revolution?

Two perspective
Supply side
Demand side
Supply side
The role of mercantilism that supplied development of:

Industrialization, eg. Accumulation of capital.

The presence of raw materials. It called more innovation and production.

Provided some, institution structures, example, formation of Banks, capital market, companies, trade agreement etc.

Development of capital ethic of added value.

Industrial revolution in Britain

The first industrial revolution it was concentrated on much consumer goods.

Produced goods for immediate use. Example, textile industries etc.

Second industrial revolution
Produce goods that can be used to produce other goods. Example, capital industries.

First industrial revolution was between 1750-1840.

Meaning of industrial revolution

Technical change in industrial production.

It was the use of machine in production.

A more observable technical changes which are in exactly intertwined as a cause an effect.

Eg. From agrarian society to industrial society.

When defining industrial revolution, three things are involved:

Industrial revolution has been associated with a beginning of higher growth of industrial production.

Industrial revolution has associated with cumulative structural changes in the economy.

The first industrial revolution in England

Putting out system
The producer does not sell and seller does not produce.

Merchant had capital but were not producing.

In capitalism a producer is a seller.

In the mid of 18th C there were significant observable industrial development.

The increase in production.

Technological improvement.

This improved labor productivity.

What were the major development in Britain by 1750? (characteristics of industries)

1.   Most of the industries were located in the village and river valleys because they feared the guild system. Because industry was against the system. People feared restrictions. In town there were restrictions.

Because of technological efficiency, water was used as the source of energy. Main source were water or wind.

2.   It had archived some kind of mechanization, but that mechanization was rather primitive.

3.   Massive proletarization. Independent producers were changed into dependent labors.

From 1750 England began to experience changes. Industry increased and got concentrated in town.

Major development occurred in the following sectors

Coal mining, iron production, textile, and machine building in engineering and transport and communication.

Coal mining

Coal was major means of energy.

From 1750 they improved its extraction.

1760 people started using gunpowder.

England innovated transportation underground.

Gun powder and underground transportation, increased production.

Iron production

Between 1783-1784 emergency of iron production which was more imporoved.

Pudding and rolling as new method of iron production.

Before pudding, charcoal was used. This was not much efficient.

Coal was improved in the production of iron.

Iron production center increased in England.

Textile production

Development of textile was dramatic.

Textile was a pace maker and prime mover. Most important industrial sector.

The most branch was spinning.

In 1733 John Key invented the fly shuttle, speeded up handloom, weaving and thus bring a balance between weaving and spinning.

Invention of spinning Jenny, invented by James…
Increased by 6 to 8 times.

Invention of spinning frame, invented by Richard Wright. This machine was able to spin 80 threads at a time. However it still needed mechanical power. Started with horse, changed to water power and there after the steam engine.

Spinning mule
Invented 1778
Combined both principles
It produced more than the two.
After 1790, it started using the steam engine. This led to development of spinning factories in town.


Mechanization of textile.
Mechanization is gradual.

Other development in textile production

In 1783, invention of mechanical printing.
In 1784, invention of bleaching powder.

Machine building

The discovery of steam engine.
Source of energy of steam engine was heating coal.
Before wind and water was used.

Advantage of steam engine

1.   Steam engine was fully under men control.  Different from wind and water which is different and cannot be controlled by men.

2.   Steam engine was mobile and means of locomotion. Because some engine was mobile, now industries were concentrated in town.
Steam engine was discovered by James Watt in 1760.

It started as one shock machine.

Transport and communication

Road, railway, canal and rivers.
1760-1830s, very big construction of canals was conducted.

It stimulated inter regional trade and facilitated the bulk goods, timber, stone etc.
In 1750 and 1780 roads construction was active in England.

There was an improved way of road construction.

Railway started in the coal mining sites then shifted.

By 1820s it had railway for locomotive.

By 1830 and 1850 referred as the period of railway mania.

England had 6000 miles equal to 15,000 Km.

Features of industrial capitalism

1.   It was a transitional phase of industrialization

2.   The rise of machine power

3.   Most of the innovation during that phase was not a result of formal education.
It was not theoretical science.

It was a result of people who were curious.

Result of trial and error.

4.   The technology to support industrial revolution were easily financed.
It was relative easier.

It didn’t involve complex technology.

5.   Innovations at this time tended to have a chain reaction
One innovation, created another sector.

Created the equilibrium of another sector.

6.   First industry revolution created a new relationship between workers and capitalists

Development of urbanization.

Change methods of production. Example, discovery of steam engine.

At this time labour was further by capital.

Social effects of British industrial

The standard of living debate
It emerged a debate
What has been the social effect?
Optimist who said Industrial revolution brought positive changes in the society.
Versus pessimists who believed, “industrial revolution was let to negative effect of the living standard of the workers.”

It had people who represented the system.

Representative of spokesmen of the bourgeoisie.

Millocracy – people who represent the people who enjoy the national cake.

To this people, industrial revolution brought about many improvements.

It improved the living standard. Example they say industrial revolution is like magic formula.

It increased purchasing power to workers.

The pessimists who said industrial revolution brought nothing but evil on the society and it negatively affected the majority especially the workers.

First group of pessimists

Dr Smith, Edwin Chadwick, Charles Dickens, Benjamin Disrael
They were led by land owners

Pessimists group included people like:
They talk about old England.

Industrialization it brought about pollution, noises, etc. it created something so bad for people to live in. industrialization came with many evils.

Industrialization is the imbalances.

Another group
Radicals and socialists
They were not opposing industrialization, they were opposing capitalism.

Scholars like: Carl Marx, Robert Owen, William Thomson.

What was their argument?

Discussed standard of workers living.

The making of the English Working Class

Debate which existed after industrial revolution.
1.   Industrial revolution improved the living standard of the people.

2.   Industrial revolution led deterioration of living standard.

Pessimistic were divided into two groups:

Engels Fredrick and Karl Marx.
All of them criticized the industrial revolution by looking at the conditions of the working class in England.

Engels argue that,
1.   Industrial revolution led to concentration of capital into hands of few people.
2.   The rise of industrial revolution led to the emergence of industrial towns. This town led to the development of caste system. Emergence of classes, segregation based on life standard. It became the group of the haves and have not.

3.   Engels again, “industrial revolution led into the situation of competition for jobs, opportunities which in turn led to people to suffer unemployment.

4.   Industrial revolution it increased women and children employment and they were lowly paid. The capitalist preferred to hire them because it was easier to control women and children.

Ideas of Engels were supported by Karl Marx in his essay.

Wage labour and capital. He added that, under industrial capitalism, what the capitalist considered most was profit maximization. To get this they were supposed to lower the wages.

Working Class

Can be explained as a group or a class of wage earners.

How the working class was formed in England

Three categories of its formation:
1.   The rural environment
Agriculture were conducted in rural.
Peasant owned land, after, enclosure, the land were taken by the government.

1.   They turned into laborers and were paid low wages. That was the emergence of a class of wage earners.

2.   Urban areas
After the land was enclosed, people went to town looking for employment.
Others managed to get jobs. Other did not got them they were lowly paid.
Both of them constituted a class of labour.

3.   Side of politics
To engage in politics was limited to labourers.

This led to the emergence of a class who were humiliated by the government.

The levels of class struggles

1.   Individual level
People who were humiliated started rising.

2.   Struggle of the people at work place.
e.g people working at the same company.

3.   The struggle by the members of the trade. Member who had associations.

4.   The struggle as a class
This was the highest level of the class. Eg. The level of all civil servants.

Why workers struggle?
1.   It was based on economic interests: unemployment, tax.

2.   Interference of workers skills, especially after the introduction and the and the use of machines.

Many worker lose their job.

Forms of the early working class protest

During industrial revolution, there were major strands.

Three strands were dominant in rural and urban Britain.

Strands during industrial revolution

1.   The intensification of the capitalist invasion of the rural life.
The bonds of traditional rights and obligation of common goods were being replaced by bourgeoisie values.

The traditional nexus was replaced by cash nexus.

The land was turned into capital.

As a result of these, the poor people in these area were mainly subjected into enclosure tollgates.

The prices of the food went hard, why?

The demands of those engaged in production was to maximize the profit.
2.   Urban population
Most of them were recruited from rural areas.
The life was real and unstable.

Masculine jobs.
3.   Emergency of the young industrialist who gain their work in the peasant and merchant interest.

Large number of peasant and independent producers were turning into an industrial proletariat.

Most early industrial protest were perceived to be primitive.

Early industrial protest were usually attributed by a crowd.

This crowd was perceived to be having no common ideology or ideas were having a traditional factors.

Early industrial protest were been divided into severe categories

1.   First protest in rural areas.
2.   Protest in urban areas.
3.   Industrial workers.
4.   Working class.

Protest in rural areas

Large number rural people had many means of subsistence.

Kind of rural employment was unstable because, many was just employed for short time.

Another problem in rural
Rural people faced the problem of rising prices.

Food shortages.


Target of the protest
1.   The farmers
Employed them to work in farms.

2.   The landlords
Owned land.

3.   Corn factory and millers
Organization of the movement in rural areas lack clear ideological.

Reasons for the emergence were based on these demands

1.   Wages. Lowly paid.
2.   The use of turnpits and tollgates. It was like a barrier.
3.   Enclosure system
4.   Repressive laws. (humiliative laws.)
5.   Sudden rise in the price of food.

Forms of food riots

     I.        Simple
They were looting the warehouse of the godowns.

   II.        Attacking the milliards of food

  III.        Stopping grain vessels, bound for foreign port. (stopping the export of food.)

The year of 1776, whereby the country riots because of shortage of food.

In urban there were three major protest

1.   Anti-Irish riots
Took place in 1736, it happened in East London.
The Irish people were attacked by the English people because were employed in London.

They attacked Irish houses.

2.   Wilkite riots. This occurred in the year 1760-1770s
This was in support of John who was a radical champion of political reforms especially for workers and poor.

The guy was imprisoned by the government.

3.   The Goldon riots
This was ant-catholic appraise.
The riot was led by George Goldon who was the president of the protestant association.

The Luddism (1811-1830)

Refers to the series of working class movement which was characterized by machine breaking.

Machine replaced human labor. Number of people in England remained unemployed.

The organization of Luddism

The movement was a secret movement.

But it was mobilized through all state.

It required a member to take an oath that he would keep secret of the movement.

The member who were attacking the machine did it in the night.

An organizer of the movement was called Ned Lud.

Factors for the rise of Luddism

Introduction of New machine main in textile production especially in spinning and weaving machine.

The introduction affected the traditional framework of knitters.

Impact of machine were in three categories

1.   People who were employed in industry
They lost employment.
Few people were hired.
Some people who were using traditional ways making cloth machine affected the traditional owner of those industries.
Luddism aimed at returning the old type of production, which used large number to hire people.

2.   Bad economic conditions
This happened after the end of Napoleonic war which was fought in 1793-1815.
Due to this war, the British economy started to decline which led to the poor conditions of the workers.

During the period of war Britain could not export or import. The war affected business. There was 20% of unemployment in Britain.

The wages became too low.

Prices of the food went high. This led to general panic to the workers.

3.   The role of the French revolution
Which took place in the year 1789.
French revolution instituted parliamentary systems of the government. Through this case, French revolution popularized a sense of awareness on the right on both men and women.

The demand of working men and women became conscious of what was happening in French.

4.   The role of literature
Books created awareness to workers particularly in demanding their rights.
A book by Thomas, ‘The rights of man.’
He printed 200,000 copies.
The content of the book was clearly showing the rights of the workers and the role of employer.
5.   The role of American revolution
1776 it happened.
The revolution consciontized workers to demand their political and economic rights.

6.   A crop failure
This happened in 1809, 1810, 1811, 1812.
Crops were not doing well due to lack of enough rains.
The availability of food was a problem.
Prices of food went high.
Salaries went down.
Life of people were in critical problem.

The impacts of Luddism movement

1.   The cost
The Luddite destroyed over 100,000 pounds worth property within 14 months.
The government spend 500,000 pound in salaries alone in military force.

2.   Practical result
In few areas wages were rised.

3.   Paved a way for the emergence of new working class movement.
Example: Chartism
Chartism rise and learned the mistake done by Luddism.

It paved the way to the emergency of the other working class movement such as Chartism.

Mistake in Luddism were used as a lesson...

Notes hazijafika mwisho, Gusa Hapa Kupata Notes Zote kwa Tsh. 2,000/= Tu.

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