Political and Economic Development in Tanzania Since Independence

Bango lenye ujumbe.

This topic discuss four aspects: political, economic, education developments and challenges to development that Tanzanians have experienced so far.
Political development in Tanzania Since Independence
Constitutional changes since independence
Constitution is the mother law of the country. All laws, by laws, rules and regulations derive their legitimacy from the constitution.
From independence to present, Tanzania has gone through four constitutions. The present constitution was ratified in 1977.
1. The independence constitution
When Tanganyika got their independence in 1961, the British master left the country with a constitution. The making of this constitution was negotiated between the British and some of few local elites.
Features of independence constitution
1. Exclusion of the bill of rights
2. The executive was led by prime minister and the head of state was governor general.
3. Separation of power of the government branches.
4. It promoted democracy. Different political parties continued to exist like: TANU, ANC, UTP and AMNUT.
2. The republican constitution (1962-1964)
- Tanganyika became a republic with the president, not the governor general anymore.
- The president received the right to dismiss the parliament under certain circumstances as well as detain any person without trial.
3. The interim constitution (1965-1977)
It came as a result of the 1964 merging of Tanganyika and Zanzibar into the named United Republic of Tanzania.
This constitution was interim in that, permanent constitution was supposed to be adopted in a year time after the union. It extended until 1977 when the permanent constitution was adopted.
The constitution was based on the republic constitution but modified according to TANU and ASP agreements which had been ratified under the name, ‘Article of Union.’
Features of interim constitution
I. Double government structure. One for the union and another for Zanzibar. The president of Zanzibar was made the vice president of the union government.
II. Formation of single party politics.
Criticism to the interim constitution
I. It did not involve the majority. It was prepared by TANU leaders only
II. It dropped down the inclusion of the UN Bill of Rights
III. It had made TANU constitution part of it. This was not right as not all citizens were members or in favour of the rulling party, TANU.
4. The permanent constitution (1977)
The constitution came as a result of the union of TANU and ASP on the 5th February 1977 due to Mwalimu Nyerere proposal to form Chama Cha Mapinduzi (CCM)
Amendments of the permanent constitution
The constitution has continued receiving debates and amendment. Among them are:
A. The 1983 constitutional debate
In 1983 CCM introduced a desire effect change of the constitution. Serious debate rose with people effectively giving their views, most especially the lawyers. The party has declared five areas that it desired for change:
I. The power of the president
II. Consolidation of the authority of the parliament
III. Strengthening the representative character of the national assembly
IV. Consolidation of the union and
V. Consolidation of the people’s powers
B. The Nyalali Commission
This was a commission nominated by the then president Ali Hassan Mwinyi to collect people’s views on what type of political system they would wish to follow. That is whether they would wish to continue with a single party system or adopt multi-party system.
Some amendments after the Nyalali Commission
The Eighth Amendment (1992)
This establish that a member of any registered political party could run for any political seat.
The Ninth Amendment
Recognized the presidential elections and introduced the possibility of the president to be impeached by the parliament. The amendment too separated the functions of the president and prime minister.
The Eleventh Amendment
The role of president of Zanzibar and that of the union vice president were set as two difference and independent roles.
Impact of the constitution changes
Tanzania has gone through four constitutions. Let see the significance of each change:
Impact of the Republican constitution
1. The governor general ceased to be the head of state.
2. President became the head of state.
Impact of the interim constitution
1. It established double government structure: one for the union and one for Zanzibar
2. Formalization of single party politics for each of the two states making the united republic of Tanzania.
3. It made TANU constitution part of national constitution.
Impact of the 1977 permanent constitution
1. It give more power to the president
2. The constitution has a double structure government.
Economic development in Tanzania since independence
Economic development is a positive change in economy. It can be: rise in productivity, modern knowledge,  and social and economic equalization.
Economic situation of Tanganyika at independence
1. Transport and communication systems like roads, railway, harbours and telecommunications were inadequate.
2. Export oriented economy. Tanganyika had been made net exporters of raw materials to Europe.
3. Dependent economy. During that time Tanganyika had no self sufficient economy.
4. Low level of science and technology in agriculture and industry.
5. Low per capita income of the people
6. Trade was still monopolized by British and Asians.
Major economic programme after independence
The programme and policies came in phases: 1961-1966, 1967-1980, 1980 to date.
The 1961-1966 Epoch
Soon after independence, leaders continued with the existing colonial economy.
The economy still operated primary under free market conditions with private sector capitalism dominating.
The 1967 - 1980’s Epoch (economic change after the introduction of Arusha declaration)
During this time, the state was introduced to a socialist path known as Ujamaa. Ujamaa policy believed that the introduction of Ujamaa villages was the best way to build a socialist economy.
Impact of the 1967 - 1980’s Epoch
1. All the major means of production were nationalized to be controlled by the government
2. The economy had been taken from private investors and entrepreneurs to be controlled by the government
3. Villagization had negative impact on the economy
- the agricultural extension officers could not stay in villages for long, they left for towns.
- the state funds form domestic sources and donor countries which were directed to the villages were not fully utilized as directed. Embezzlement was an attitude of some of the village officials or leaders.
- effective water supplies, roads, markets and other social services were delayed in many villages.
- infertility of some of the chosen areas for resettlement of people.
The mid 1980 to date epoch
During this time, leaders accepted failure of socialist economy. As a result they had to opt for capitalism economy. The nationalized enterprises, and state owned enterprises were privatized again.
Impact of the 1980s to date economic reforms and changes
1. Re introduction of capitalism in Tanzania.
2. Privatization of enterprises once owned by the state. The state owned enterprises were sold to some individuals with enough capital and technology who wished to invest.
3. Trade liberalization. The economy was left under market force. The government removed its hand in economy. Also there was state decontrol of prices, prices were to be determined by the market law of supply and demand.

The adoption of the structural adjustment programmes (SAPs)
In Tanzania, from the mid 1970 to mid 1980 African countries, Tanzania included were facing serious economic crisis.
Causes of economic crisis in Tanzania
1. The escalating oil prices of 1970s. This resulted from Arab-Israel war. During the war, the middle East and North Africa countries decided to cut exports to the industry capitalist countries that supported Israel in the war.
2. Prolonged drought of 1973 to 74 and 1981 to 84. This drought devastated the economy.
3. Kagera war. This war had costed the government money, food and people lives.
4. The falling prices of Tanzania agricultural produces to be sold externally.
5. Escalating national debts from international financial institutions and the developed countries.
6. The role of neo-colonialism. Exploitation made by developed countries to poor countries was a reason for Tanzania economic crises.
Due to those problems, Tanzania decided to accept SAPs. SAP refer to the economic policies introduced by IMF and World Bank for the developing countries as a condition for them to qualify for loans.
SAPs conditionalities (SAPs policies)
1. Currency devaluation
Borrowers were obliged to devalue their currencies in exchange with international currencies. Devaluation was reasoned to increase the African exports of raw materials and minerals in the world market and at better prices.
2. Trade liberalization
Developing countries were forced to abolish imports restrictions and trade protectionism. This was hoped to encourage foreign investors by assuring them that they would be free to withdraw their capital and profit when they wished.
3. Price reforms (decontrol of prices)
Developing countries were compelled to stop controlling the prices of commodities sold in their home markets. Price determination was to be left to market force, the law of demand and supply.
4. Privatization of economic sectors owned by state
Government enterprises like industries, were to be given to investors with enough capital and technology for the government to tax them highly.
5. Democratization process
This was acceptance of multipartism. It was expected to promote more challenges, criticisms, responsibilities, accountability and transparency to the leading party. The result would be development.
6. Control of government budget deficits
For the government to be able to balance their budget so as to reduce annual growth of their debts, the following measures were taken:
- increase tax to investors
- charge higher prices for goods and services provided by public enterprises
- reduce the number of people employed by the government
- reduce government spending on public services like education, health, transport, water and agriculture.
Impact of SAPs on Tanzania
1. Currency devaluation led to the rise in the costs of imports especially on consumer goods, fuel, oil and food.
2. Trade liberalization resulted into the presence of many multinational corporations which are in the interests of the rich capitalist nations.
3. Privatization policy has led to domination of the private sectors by foreigners who exploit our economies.
4. Cutting of government spending on social services had led to a number of problems like: death of people as many cant afford medical cost and ignorance because poor majority can not afford to pay tax.
5. Unemployment
6. Multipartism has invited hatred and division based on political view. Also, during election it has led to death of people.
Challenges to economic development in Tanzania
1. The daily growing population
The population is growing but infrastructures are still the same.
2. Market shortage
This creates losses to the industrialists and so the economy.
3. Skill development shortage
The Tanzanian education sector is still not producing the exact kind of skilled people who would match the modern science and technology.
4. Lack of committed government officials
Many of them are supervising national economic policies on the basis of nepotism, tribalism, etc.
5. Poverty
This inhibits the citizens participation in economic activities like trade, agriculture, and industries.
6. Poor management of natural resources
Our resources like: minerals, fishes, forest and wild animals, are not managed in a good way to make sure that it benefit the majority.
Educational development after independence
Education is the process of imparting skills and knowledge to a learner so as to enable them do something.
In Tanzania, development of education has gone through a series of phases: This includes pre-colonial era, colonial era and post colonial era. In this chapter we shall centre our concentration on educational development in Tanzania since independence to now.
Colonial education policies in Tanzania up to 1961
Tanzania was a Germany colony up to 1919 when she was made a British mandate territory. The first government school in Tanzania was established in Tanga in 1892.
By mid 1930, there were 2668 denominational schools with and enrollment of 96755 boys and 58314 girls. Government and Native authority schools were 86 with a total enrolment of 7979 students.
Aims of colonial education
1. To train few Africans to help them in their local administration at the lowest ranks like fore men, messengers, clerks…
2. To give elementary agricultural knowledge and skills to Africans engaged in production so as to improve the quality increase the cash crops to be exported.
3. To produce educated Africans who could support colonialism
4. To spread European culture
5. To divide the Africans. It aimed to create a class of educated and the illiterate.
6. To be used as an ideological tool that would make Tanzanians believe in the whites being superior to them.
Colonial educational policies
In 1923 Phelps Stokes Commision reported that, the previous education initiatives did not relate to the Africans community needs and the education policy had to be improved.
British introduced their educational policy from 1945 - 1961
Their policy on education this time included:
1. An increase in the number of schools
2. An expansion of schools (more classroom)
3. An increase in enrolment of learners from primary to college levels. For example in 1950s the total enrolment at primary school was 231,000 boys and 105,000 girls. In middle school it was 23,100 boys and 4,900 girls where as in secondary school was 2205 boys and 204 girls.
4. An increase in enrolment in post secondary college from 27 to 200
5. Change in the syllabuses. This was to enable the British get the type of people they needed that time. Agriculture was made a very important aspect in the changes. This was aimed to give the mass more agricultural skills.
Effect of the colonial education policy up to 1961
1. Racial inequalities
Learners were grouped and provided education according to their race. European received the best education, followed by Asians and blacks were at the bottom.
2. Gender inequalities
Colonial education provided education based on ones gender (sex) and so girls always lagged behind that of boys.
3. Inequality based on religion
Missionaries established schools in different parts of Tanzania in which only children of their own religious denominations were admitted. This means those children of different religion or denominations were denied admission.
4. Regional disparities
In some regions there were more schools set up as compared to others. For example in Kilimanjaro and Bukoba, there were many schools because coffee was produced.
5. De-Africanization
The Tanzanians who got access to education especially to advanced levels were turned into black Europeans in their eating styles, wearing, language, and all cultural aspects.
6. More exploitation of Africans raw materials and labour
The colonialist provided education to Tanzanians to be used as lowly paid helpers in their administration, as well as increase in production of raw materials in quantity and quality. So people with skills were needed for more exploitation.
Education changes in Tanzania after independence 1962 - 1967
After independence of Tanzania mainland. The government of the united Republic of Tanzania had to continue providing education to the citizens. But this education had to undergo some changes and improvement so as to suit the African environment.
The following changes were introduced:
1. The government made education a right to all Tanzanians irrespectively of one’s race or level of income.
2. There was an increase of primary and secondary school enrolment
3. There were changes regarding to the content of colonial education
4. The government established the university of Dar es Salaam as the state University. The aim was to acquire highly educated Tanzanians who will play a leading role in developing countries.
The philosophy of education for self reliance
Education for self reliance proposed the following changes:
1. It should be oriented to rural life. The education system should not divorce people from their society they live in. It should be relevant to the society.
2. Teachers and students should all engange in productive activities
3. Productive work should become and integral part of the school curriculum and provide meaningful learning experience through integration of theory and practice
4. Examination should be downgraded. Passing examination should not be the main goal of education system. It should be education for life.
5. Children should begin school at seven years so that they would be old enough and sufficient mature to engage in self reliant and productive work when they leave school.
6. Primary education must be complete in itself rather than merely serving as  a means to higher education after school. People should be in position to creates jobs and be self reliant.
Achievement of education for self reliance in Tanzania
1. Education was made a right of all Tanzanians
2. It increased literacy rate
3. Introduction of unity
4. Regional balance
During colonialism, education was provided in production areas. Education for self reliance ensured all people have access to education.
5. Use of Swahili language
Swahili was introduced as the media of instruction.
6. Increase enrollment in both primary and secondary school.