Globalization | Civics Form Four Tanzania

watu wameshika dunia
Globalization is the free movement of goods, services and people across the world.  It is the way in which the world in seen as a single village.

Aspects of globalization

1. Information and Communication Technology
Globalization is characterized by the advancement of information and communication technology. This sector expanded drastically within the last few years, specifically the last quarter of the twentieth century. This period witnessed the global distribution of media images through computers, screens, radio, newspapers, televisions and mobile phones. Development of information and technology goes hand-in-hand with the rise of information companies such as Microsoft, Intel, Compaq and Cisco. The rise of these companies indicates the quick advancement of technology.
2. Movement of People
There has been an increase in the movement of people from one country to another. These may be tourists, migrants, refugees, business travelers and diplomats. Most migrations occur between developing countries and developed countries. There is also a flow of migrants to developed economies from developing countries, making the world more interconnected.
3. Spread of Ideas and Ideology
The concept of multiparty and green peace are examples of political ideologies that have acquired international dominance. Spread of knowledge, ideas, information and ideologies has been an integral aspect of globalization. This may be different physical capital, technical skills and production methods, managerial skills, marketing skills and global economic policies.
4. Finance
There is a global flow of money often driven by the interconnected currency market stock exchange, as well as commodity markets. The flow of money is also facilitated by international financial institutions such as the IMF and World Bank, assisted by multilateral Banks which have branches in almost every part of the world.
5. Free Market Economy 
In the free market, everyone is allowed to join the business. also, the price is planned by traders themselves based on the law of supply and demand. That is why in our country we have been receiving products from different countries like China and America.
6. The Structural Adjustment Program (SAP)
SAP refers to the list of budgetary and policy changes required by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Bank (WB) for developing countries to qualify and apply for a loan. This conditions typically include reducing barriers to trade and capital flows, tax increases and cuts in government expenditure. Also, the policy influenced privatization of public property. All sub – Saharan African countries south of the Sahara including those in east, central and southern Africa - excluding the Republic of South African - were obliged to adopt the policy to solve the international problems and reduce the heavy debt burden that seemed to increase rapidly between 1970s and 1980s.

Challenges of globalization in Tanzania

Tanzania is in globalization, but it is facing various challenges to cope well with globalization. The following are the challenges of globalization in Tanzania.

1. Low level of the use of communication system

In Tanzania the use of global, communication satellites and telephone is still low and under developed. Most of communication systems are confirmed to the urban areas while a rural population which is bigger is still unconnected with the world communication system.
2. Low production
Tanzania’s economic sectors such as agriculture , industry, mining, fishing are not producing enough goods for export . The increase of international trade as one among the fundamental characteristics of globalization will leave Tanzania a buyer of foreign goods rather than a manufacturer and exporter.
3. Low level of education
The levels of education among Tanzanians are very low compared to that in other countries in the world. This level of education fails to meet intellectual demands of globalization such as technological skills, managerial skills, entrepreneur skill and marketing skills. Thus Tanzanians will not be able to compete in employment opportunities with others from other countries.
4. Low saving and low investment growth
Many Tanzanians do not have a culture of keeping their money in the bank. failure to save, has made them miss money to invest in various projects. so many investors have been coming out and enjoying our resources.
5. Pressure of prices from world market
The world market have been pricing our products. The planned price is small which exploit our farmers and most of them remain poor.
6. Low technology
It's difficult to be successful in globalization without having technology. Tanzania have poor technology as a result it stay buyers of other countries product.

Possible solutions to challenge of globalization

1. To reduce poverty
Tanzania can reduce poverty by focusing on provisional of health, education and social security to her citizens.
2. Well prepared environment and conditions for investors 
This is to stabilize our macro economy. Attractions of investors must go together with stated conditions which will make Tanzanians benefit from foreign investments, rather than being the watchers of profit transactions.
3. Education should be given a significant priority and compulsory to all people
Tanzanians government should make sure that most if not all Tanzanians get not only education but higher quality education which will enable them to cope with challenges brought about by globalization.
4. There should be proper utilization of both natural and human resource so as to boost the economic growth
Tanzania has been experiencing the shortage of personnel like doctors yet there are many doctors from Tanzania who are walking abroad, this is improper utilization of human resources. Moreover, Tanzania faces a problem of shortage of food almost each year but they are so many uninhibited areas with fertile soils but still undeveloped. If resources used properly, Tanzania will acquire development enough to solve the challenge of globalization.
5. Regional integration's and co-operations should be encouraged
This will help to have a common say against exploitative practices done by developed countries. Membership of regional integration's and co-operations like SADC, and East Africa can enable Tanzania and other countries to at least fight back against the negative effect of globalization.
6. Fighting against corruption
Corruption has turned back the development of the country. If we are able to fight corruption, people will progress and this will help solve the globalization challenges.

Positive effects of globalization

1. Globalization has made transportation of goods easier
Through the discovery of cars, train, ship and airplane, shipping of goods has become easier and many people reach them in time.
2. Employment opportunity
Globalization has opened many opportunities, among these opportunities are industries that have been able to employ many people and reduce the problem of employment.
3. Wide spread of private schools and hospitals
The increase in the school helps people to get educated, the increase in hospitals helps people to access medical services and increase their livelihoods.
4. Speed up the democratization process in Tanzania
Globalization has come with democracy. Tanzania has also taken that democracy, like having multiparties and the country is led by the constitution.
5. Revealed out some bad cultural practices
Globalization has helped to eliminate bad practices such as: FGM, woman's inheritance, forced marriage and kill the disabled. Many have received education something which eliminates negative cultural practice.
6. Utilization of natural resources
Through privatization and investment our resources are effectively utilized because companies with high technology and mechanisms have been paying taxes to the government. Also, since our people have education, they can now manage their resources like minerals, wild animals and other resources for the development of their country.

Negative effects of globalization

1. Environmental degradation
Globalization has destroyed the environment. For example, the presence of industries, has become a source of pollution for land, water and air.
2. Centralization of political power in biggest capitalist powers
Nations such as America, Britain and other developed countries, because they have economic power, have been dominating the world politics. For example, democratic issues have been promoted by them and any country that violates can be invaded as it did in Libya.
3. Terrorism
As a result of the spread of technology, terrorism has had a chance because people have been learning through videos. Also, simplification of transport routes has helped terrorists travel in different countries and to make their attacks. In 1998, in Tanzania there was a terrorist attack in American embassies, the success of this attack was contributed  by the development of globalization.
4. Erosion of morals in societies
Through various aspects of globalization like internet, videos and travel, many young people have been imitating foreign styles. The styles are like: using cocaine, wearing style and crime.
5. Increase of diseases
Globalization simplifies travel to people. Unfortunately, when sick people travel, it causes the spread of the disease there. For example, entry of AIDS in African countries was caused by people traveling. Also, because of globalization, young people have been imitating improper things like prostitution which make them infected.
6. Unemployment
Globalization has taken many jobs. The work that would be done by the people is now done by the machine. For example, the availability of automatic teller machine (ATM), has caused many employees to miss the opportunity.

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