10+ Facts We Need to Know about Intelligence Test

10+ Facts We Need to Know about Intelligence Test

Intelligence tests are psychological tests that are designed to measure a variety or mental functions such as reasoning, comprehension and judgment.
The goal of intelligence test is to obtain an idea of the person’s intellectual potential. The tests center on a set of stimuli designed to field a score based on the test maker’s model of what makes up intelligence. Intelligence tests are often given as part of a battery of tests.
There are many different types of intelligence tests and they all do not measure the same abilities. Although the tests often have aspects that are related with each other, one should not expect that score from one intelligence test. That measure a single factor will be similar to scores other intelligence tests, that measures a variety of factors.
Also, when determining whether or not to use an intelligence test, a person should make sure that the test has been adequately developed and has solid research to show its reliability. Therefore, the test should only be administered and interpreted by a trained professional.
The core of criticism of intelligence test is that, psychologists and educators use these test to distribute the limited reason our society. these test result are used to provide rewards such as special classes for gifted students, admission to college and employment.
Many people are under the false assumption that, intelligence tests measure a person’s inborn or biological intelligence. Intelligence tests are based on an individuals interaction with the environment and never exclosure measure inborn intelligence.

The four most commonly used intelligence tests are:

· Stanford – Binet Intelligence Scale
· Wechsler – Adult Intelligence Scale
· Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children
· Wechsler Primary and preschool scale of  intelligence

Advantages:

i. Intelligence test measure a wide variety of human behaviors better than any other measure that has been developed.
ii. Intelligence tests are excellent predictors of academic achievement and provide an outline of a person’s mental strengths and weakness.

Disadvantages:

i. Some researchers argues that intelligences tests have serious shortcoming. Example, many intelligence tests produce a single intelligence score.
ii. Intelligence tests only measure a sample of behaviors of situations in which intelligence behavior is revealed. Some intelligence tests do not measure a person’s everyday functioning, social knowledge, mechanical skills and or creativity.
An aptitude is a component kind of a competence to do a certain kind of work at a certain level. Outstanding aptitude can be considered ‘talent’. An aptitude may be physical or mental.
Aptitude is inborn potential to do certain kinds of work whether developed or underdeveloped. Ability is developed knowledge understanding, learned or acquired abilities (skills) or aptitude.
The innate nature of aptitude is a contrast to skills and achievement which presents knowledge or ability that is gained through learning, Citadwell and Colvi, (2008).
Critics argue that, they do not accurately measure students potential.

Prons: (Rebeliah Richards)

i. Aptitude tests allow objective comparisons standardized aptitude tests such as the SAT, provide a standard quantitation metric that universities and companies can use to compare.
ii. Aptitudes tests are efficient, standardized aptitude test are more effective than most other strategies for measuring aptitude, such as oral exam’s essay.

Cons:

i. Aptitude test do not measure all areas aptitude tests traditionally neglect some areas of intelligence and ability such as social ability, artistic capability, musical intelligence and spacial.
ii. Aptitude tests are not fair. Critics of aptitude tests argue that, they do not fairly assess intelligence.
References:
Greg Mashek, (2003). The Role of Standardized Intelligence Measure in Testing for Giftedness.
Methods M, (2006). Advantages and Disadvantages of Various Assess: University of Texas – Arlington.
Banget A, (2006). Two Traditions for Assessing students Achievement: Montana State University.

ways to prevent students from humiliation or embarrassment:


Embarrasment is considered one of the self conscious emotions, quite at ease in the company of guilt, shame, and pride. Given that embarrasment happens in relationship to other people, it is a public emotion that makes you feel exposed and filled with regret for whatever your wrong doing happen to be, (Lewis, 2008).
Embarrasement likely evolved to maintain social order, since in being embarassed people communicate others that they recognize and regret their misbehaviour and will try to do better, (Miller, 2005).
Embarassing or bottling students may interfere with learnig and lead to longterm resentment. Teachers should treat student’s respectivelly and be mindful of their feelings. The need to gain control of student is reaching new levels of desperation. Three days a week, parents can take their misbehaving kind to A-H kuts in Snellville and ask for the Benjamin Button special, the cut involves showing hair off the childs crown until the begins to resemble a building seniour citizen. What cause embarrassement is experience shame, and so much is also true of embarrassment and other emotions, people with low self esteem are more probes to show because they have a poor self image.
Humiliation, teachers choose to humiliate students for several reasons such as to gain control over them because the teacher is desperate. To frighten other students is because they are over compasating for their own lack of confidence. Some teachers actually think they has a right to humilite a student deserves it.  Other teachers think that students frequently humiliate themselves specially online. Students do not mind being humiliiated.
Many readers of this post are in positions of influencing other teachers both formally and informal. We call need to useour influence to provide a safe haven for all students regardless their behaviour.

The following are the ways to prevent students from humiliation or embarrassment:

Pay close attention to body language. Sometimes what a student is saying is not he/she feelings. If studets shows discomfort, defensiveness, or withdrawal, make sure everything is ok between you. So it is very important to a teacher to know his/her students well.
Never write a students name in a public place. In doing such a thing as a teacher, your embarrasing your students. So a teacher must be very carefully about such a thing in order to keep his/her self clear. If a teacher writes a name of students in the public place it means that a student is embarassed something which is good.
Frequently check with your students that the message they are receiving is the same one that you are sending. As a teacher, you must be competent enough in such process so that you can understand that your students they are receiving that message of materials which expect them to get from you. If your students not paying attention in what you are teaching it mean that, there is a problem. And that problem needs to be solved immediatelly. So that to catch the mind of your students.
Don’t give your students an embarassig hair cut. In many schools, they more deal with such thing of haircut. In doing that means those students they are embarrasing because it is not normal situation.
If you notice any sudden change in a students behavior, especially indications of with-drawal, find times as quickly as possible to make sure that you have not been hurtful to that student, even unintentionally.
Do not appraise a student for doing a simple task. This only makes her or him, to feel you have low expectation for her or him. If the student’s doing such task very well, you as a teacher you must take it simple.
Call on all students equally. If a student gives a wrong answer, do not say, “can anybody help him?” instead, ask the student if he like to choose another student to be his consultant. Let him choose his own consultant. It is a very important thing in school or in classroom.
Ask students to tell you of or preferably write you a note about anything that they might find humiliating for embarranching in class and sure not to do those thing with student that especifically informs youi.
Tell your students a story about a time when you were embarrased by a teacher, discuss it with them and listen to their suggestions of what you could have done to resolve them incident. Come up with a classposter, call when you are embarrased you can also list the best suggestion.
Always give the students the right to pass when you call up on them in the class.
Avoid sarcasm. Even if your students might laugh about it. Students often save face by hiding how embarrasement they real feel.
Every student in school deserves the right to feel emotionally safe from embarassment and humiliation by teachers, by local barbers and by other students. When this safely is used, not only does academic performance suffer, but also student might never be free of the hurt for the rest of their lives.
References:
Lewis M, (2008). Self Conscious Emotionss, Embarrassment, pride shoma, and guilt. In M. Lewis and SM Haviland (Eds), Hand book of Emotions (Pp. 742-756). New York: Quilfold Press.
Miller, R ((2006). Is Embarrassment a Blessig or a Curse: in J. Tracy, R. Robins and J. Tangney (ed), the self conscious emotions: Theory and Research (Pp 245-262). New York: Gilfrord Press.

Question: Is it possible to objectify observation? Explain.


Observation is the active acquisition of information from a primary source in living beings. Observation employs the senses. In science, observation can also involve the recording of data via the use of instruments. The terma may also reffer to any dta collected during the scientific activity. Observations can be qualitative if a numerical value is attached to the observed phenomenon by counting of measuring, Kosso, Peter (2011).
Generally, observation refers to the process of gaining information though the senses, example auditory. There are different techniques that are especially useful for teachers such as Anecdota records technique rating scales techniques and checklist techniques.

Question: Is it possible to objectify observation? Explain.

Yes, it is, and we have all learned the strick when we do elementary school arithmetics.
We can all make mistakes. We can even be fooled by clever fakes and on men. Most insidiously we can fool ourselves. So we learn to check what we see, that we hear and what we conclude.
There are simple things to do in daily life. More around and see if things look the same from diffenrent angles.
Use more than one of your senses, supplement what you see by feelilng, listening to even sometimes smelling and tasting.
Ask your-self, it is this consistent or inconsistent with what you know?
Check the internet. Do not be satisfied by finding other people who say the same thing. Ask what the resources are, find the original information that everyone is repeating. How was it determined?
Many or a lot of science consists of doing these sample things more precisely and more systematic: corresponding to the above list.
We can build dedicated instruments to detect and to measure specific things. We can calibrate them to be sure they measure known things properly. And scientists and mathematic ans have also developed statistical tests to deal with uncertainities in observations.
We can describe exactly what we have done and publish so that others can repeat our work. We can publish peer reviewed journals, where other scientists can check our results.
We can check our work against previously published work. This produces the preferences and the discussion of previous work section which are essential for peer reviewed publication.
We can combine theoretical and experimental approaches.
We do not have to do this with every observation, is and especially if the observation changes the way you think about something.
References:
Kosso, Peter (2011). A summary of Scientific Method: Springer. P.9
Shipman James, Wilson Jerry D: Todd, A  Aron (2009). Introduction to Physical Science. 12th Ed. Engage Learning. P. 4

The purpose of checklists rating scales 

Checklists rating scales are tools that state-specific criteria and allow teachers and students to gather information and to make judgements about what students know and can do in relation to the outcomes. They offer systematic ways of collecting data about specific behaviours, knowledge and skills.
The quality of information acquired through the use of checklists rating scales is highly dependent on the quality of the descriptors chosen for assessment. Their benefit is to also dependent on students direct involvement in the assessment and understanding of the feedback provided.

The purpose of checklists rating scales they are similar to following:

Both provide tools for systematic recording of observations.
Both checklists and rating scales provide tools for self-assessment.
Both checklist and panting scale provide samples of the interior for students prior to collecting and evaluating data on their work record the development of specific skills, strategies, attitudes and behaviours necessary for demonstrating learning.
Both Checklist and rating scale clarify students instructional needs by presenting a record of current accomplishments.
Also checklists and rating scales they are similar to different tips for developing.
Both checklists and rating scales in relation to outcomes and standards.
Both checklists and rating scales in relation to outcomes and standards.
Both checklists and rating scale use simple formats that can be understood by students and that will communicate information about students, learning parents.
Both checklists and rating scale ensures that the characteristics and descriptors listed are clear, specific and observable.
Both rating scales and checklists encourage students to assist with constructing appropriate criteria. Example, what are the descriptors that demonstrate levels of performance in problem-solving.
Both that checklists and rating scales are dated to track progress over time.
Both checklists and rating scale leave space to record anecdotal notes or comments.
Both checklist and ration scale provide guidance to students to use and create their own checklist, a rating scale for self-assessment purposes and guidelines for goals setting.
Both rating scale and checklists use generic templates that become familiar to students and to which various descriptors can be added quickly, depending on the outcomes being assessed.
Checklist usually offers a yes/no  formal relation to students demonstrations of specific criteria. This is similar to light switch the light is either on or off. They may be used to record observation of an individual, a group or a whole class.
Rating scale allows to teachers to indicate the degree or frequency of behaviors skills and strategies displayed by the learner to continue the light switch analogy. A rating scale is like a dimmer switch that provides for a range of performance levels. Rating scales state the criteria and provide three or four response selections to describe the quality of frequently of student work.

Multiple choice items

Multiple choice tests are widely attractive assessment techniques that have captured the attention of many standard examination bodies all over the world. They can be used to objectively assess cognitive,  analytical and other skills in multiple choice in the measurement of ability. Their consequence undermined, (Trub, 1998).
Multiple choice items are designed for objective measurement and contain a stem and response option and which is the correct answer, Murayama, (2009). It is a kind of test item in which some option re given and the examination is expected to pick the correct one out of the option. Provided multiple choice consist of a stem and a set of options and now there are many helpful hints which can be helpful to the stem word. These measurement specialists may be particularly helpful as follows:
Design each item to measure important learning outcome.
Present a single clearly formulated problem in the stem of the item.
Put much of the warding as possible in the stem.
Eliminate unnecessary or redundant words for multiple choice items.
Avoid negatively stem, list where it is unavoidable, emphasize it in the stem of an item and an option.
Ensure that, the intended answer is correct or clearly the best.
Do not have the intended answer is correct or clearly the best.
Do not have linked item. A stem due occur when an identical or similar item appears in both the stem and an option.
All option should be plausible and relatively homogeneous.
Put the repeated word in the steam, not in the option.
Mark all option grammatically consistent with the stem of the item.
List options logically and if possible use vertically.
Ensure that, each item is independent of the other items in the test.
Vary the position of the correct options in a random manner.
Make the distractors plausible and attractive to the uninformed.
Use the option all of the above and none of the above sparingly. Knowing that two options are correct could lead a clever candidate to choose all of the above without knowing the importance of connectedness of the remaining responses.
Therefore to make our higher level of multiple choice questions more effective, we can use just to assess reasons behind an answer, we can ask students to specify.
References
Angelo, T. A, and Cross K.P, (1993). Classroom Assessment Techniques: a Handbook for College Teachers. San Francisco. CA  Jossey – Bass Inc.
Brookhart, SM. (1999). The Art and Science of Classroom Assessment: The Missing Part of Pedagogy Astly Eric Higher Education Report.
Fenwick and Parson, (200). The Art of Evaluation: A Handbook for Educators and Trains. Torrents Ontario: Thompson Educational Publishing Inc.
Pomperaug Regional School Distin Connecticut, (1996). Teachers Guide.
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