Formative Assessment Questions

Picha yenye rangi za kuvutia ajabu

1.   (a) Choose one topic of your teaching subject and complete the chart below. 
List at least three possible misconceptions that students can face and reveal in learning and understanding some lesson contents in the topic of your choice.
Cite examples of students’ responses to illustrate the respective misconceptions
Include your reference, i.e., as a teacher how did you come to know the misconception (indicate LR for literature review, PE for personal experience or both LR and PE
1, Language misconceptions
Example in this question ‘what were (i) the causes and (ii) effects of the Great Deppression in Africa between 1929 and 1934.  Students can explain the word ‘causes’ as a key word of the question instead of explaining the ‘Great Economic Depression.
PE and LR
2, map misconceptions
A map used in the topic of Crisis in the capitalist system is lacking a north direction. Students can fail to locate the site of different historical areas because there is no north direction to help them find the location.
PE and LR
3, the term World Wars are misconceptions
The term World Wars can mislead the students as they can respond that all countries in the world participated actively in the war.
PE and LR
(b) Choose two misconceptions that you have identified in section (a) above. Then construct one question or task for each misconception that will test students’ competence (in a sense of deep learning and understanding) and can reveal presence or absence of the misconception in students’ learning and understanding of lesson contents in the topic of your choice.

i.             Language misconceptions
Question. In 1929 the Great Economic Deppression affected the World as many banks were closed, people lost their job and economic hardship which increased poverty. The reason behind this was the first world war and overproduction. Basing on your prior knowledge and help from different books you have read, discuss the causes and effects of the Great Economic Deppression.
ii.            World wars misconceptions.
Question. It is not true that all countries participated in the first and the second world wars. Mention all countries which participated in the first and second world war. 

2.   (a) Draw and complete this chart
Name at least four textbooks for school use for your subject of specialization in your country of origin
State misconceptions assessed through questions or tasks available in the textbooks
Page numbers
1, History for Secondary School. Form four. Written by Tanzania Institute of Education.
Language misconceptions. Example of question. ‘what were (i) the causes and (ii) effects of the Great Deppression in Africa between 1929 and 1934.’
2, History for Secondary Schools Form Four. Written by Kaloly and Kiruthu.
The term first World war.
3, Advanced Learners History. Form five and six. Written by Edward John Kuyela.
The term ‘New World’ in the topic people of African origin in the new World.
4, Mastering Advanced Level History Book 2. Written by Kato Abubakary Kassim
The term ‘cold war’
(b) Cite two questions or tasks available in the textbooks that in your view test students’ competence (in a sense of deep learning and understanding) and can reveal presence or absence of the misconception in students’ learning and understanding of lesson contents of any topic in one of the textbooks you listed in section (a) above.
i. Why the cold war was called cold?
ii. Trace the genesis of the people of African origin in the New World.

3.   Read website of one African (except Tanzania) national or regional examinations council or board (E.g., ZIMSEC for Zimbabwe; WAEC for West African countries; NECO for Nigeria; KNEC for Kenya and UNEB for Uganda) and attempt the following questions:-
a.   Download at least five papers for your subject of specialization
b.   In each paper cycle the questions that you think test students’ competence (in a sense of deep learning and understanding) and can reveal presence or absence of particular misconception at the end of the respective education level (e.g., primary or secondary).

Answers are attached at the end of this work.

c.   List the summative assessment features that included in the website of the national examination council or board for the African country that you have read about.
Summative assesment features
                                                 i.    Set and maintain examination standard.
                                                ii.    Do anything in a dental or conductive to the performance of any of the preceding functions.
                                               iii.    Award certificates and diplomas to successful candidates

d.   Develop a chart to present difference in assessment information (features) in the website of the national examination council or board website of your choice when compared to NECTA for Tanzania.

Uses of range of marks example uses grade to present the examination performance.
Uses of color of green, yellow, and red representing high, medium and low performing school respectively and in 2003 O’level and 2015 advanced level use of GPA to present the examination performance.

e.   Which assessment features or information are included in the websites of African national or regional examination councils or boards (including Tanzania) that can be appropriated to adopt formative assessment in reporting national examinations results for the African countries. 
                                         i.    According to KNEC – KENYA, most countries are turning to adoption of continuous assessments over summative evaluation. For the purpose of planned changes to the education curriculum to gradually invest in the change that focuses on continous evaluation
                                        ii.    According to NECTA – TANZANIA, to provide fair efficient and effective educational assessment.
                                       iii.    To be the centre of Excellence in quality education assessment and certification .NECTA
                                      iv.    To be a leading center of assessment for quality education. UNEB – UGANDA
                                       v.    To ensure continued improvement of quality, validity and reliability of assessment and evaluation of the curriculum and learners achievement. UNEB – UGANDA.
                                      vi.    Integrity commitment, security, confidentiality, efficiency, teamwork, accountability, creativity and impartiality. UNEB - UGANDA

4.   (a) Take sample of one copy of the so called ‘review books’ and another of ‘test papers book’ that are available in the public cycle in Tanzania and for which it is now a must condition for students to possess in some private schools including best performing schools in primary and secondary national examinations. Complete the chart below
Include full reference/citation of  the ‘review book’ and ‘test papers book’
Target education level (e.g., primary
Write the summative assessment aspects or messages therein
Write the formative assessment aspects or messages therein
1, Ezra, J. (2013). Ordinary Level History Review. Questions and Answers. Dar es Salaam: APE Network.
Secondary. Ordinary Level
“At this level, most of students learning process is passive, that is, they abslutely depend on information obtained from books, teachers and parents/guardians. So if we who have taken the duty of educating stundents do not guide them on how to learn, how can we expect them to understand and perform well?”
“APE network’s series of textbooks, reviews and periodicals is processing with the deremination to bring proper education and facilitate effective learning to all people.”

2, Nyambari, N. (2008). Advanced level History Paper. Question with Answers. Nyambari Nyangwine Publishers: Dar es Salaam.
Secondary Level. (Form 5&6).
Help students to ease revision and help students review the concepts learned and prepare themselves for final exams.
Help the student to have wider understanding and prepare themselves for the final exam.
(b) Cite only two questions or tasks in each category of the books that in your view test students’ competence (in a sense of deep learning and understanding) and can reveal presence or absence of the misconception in students’ learning and understanding of lesson contents of any topic.
Questions in review book.
                                         i.    Why has the dream of  a United Africa not been achieved?
                                        ii.    Explain the objectives of the newly re established East African Community and how Tanzania is likely to benefit from it.

Questions in paper book.
                                       iii.    Explain the meaning of state.
                                      iv.    What do u understand by the term common wealth?
5.   Identify website and ICT facilities (ICT solutions) in African countries today that provide assessment work for enriching learning and preparing primary and secondary school learners for national examinations. Additionally, some of them claim to provide address pedagogical aspects with the intention to enabling and providing learning opportunities for students in line with the current (constructivist view) of learning. A list of ICT solutions that were showcased during ICT exhibition week in September 2015 at Julius Nyerere International Conference Centre can be accessed online. Work on any five ICT solutions and complete the chart below.

Include full name and respective websites
Target education level (e.g., primary
Write the summative assessment aspects or messages therein
Write the formative assessment aspects or messages therein
1, Shule direct
Secondary education. O level.
An online platform that provides educational learning content for students and teachers in secondary schools.
Join your fellow students for discussion about different subjects. In case of problem or misunderstanding I will be there to help.
2, Maktaba
Primary and secondary. A level and O level.
CSEE 2016 pass rate. The first got 88% - Iringa. And the last Lindi region got 52%.
Founded in 2008, TETEA has been helping students in Tanzania to receive a better education.
3, My elimu
Secondary education. O level and A level.
MyElimu | Discussions For Briliant Students.
"I believe one day Tanzania education will rise and we will have great minds that will lead this country towards the development we've always dream of." - Given
4, thl
Secondary education O level and A level.
more than 10,000Review question and answers.
Group discussions na uwezo wa kuuliza maswali na kujibiwa.
5, Mwalimumakoba
Primary education, Secondary education. O level and A level.
Kukisoma kitabu hiki ni kumiliki alama 30% za mtihani wa mwisho wa kidato cha nne hata kabla ya kuufanya mtihani wenyewe!
Pia mada zinazojadiliwa humu, zitaongeza ubunifu wa wanafunzi na kuwafanya waongeze maarifa yao ambayo ndiyo msingi wa kila kitu.
 (b) Select only one ICT solution from the five you worked in section ‘a’ above, then, use the chart below to cite the features that are in line with the summative or formative view of assessment in regard to (i) construction of questions or tasks of the assessment tasks therein (ii) administration of the assessment work (iii) marking of the students’ responses in the assessment work and (iv) interpretation of assessment results and feedback giving.
Title of the chart (name of the ICT solution (e.g., 10monkeys game or Graphogame)

Part of the assessment process
Assessment perspective
Summative (AoL)
Formative (AfL)
Construction of questions or tasks
Uses of prior knowledge and understanding.
Attempting questions individually.

Collaboration among learners.
Use of ticks and cross.

Use of information (comments), that convey messages.
Interpretation of results and feedback giving
Involve performance and scores.
Involve error analysis (oral and written information).

6.   Access and work on one of the NECTA’s candidates’ items response analysis reports for national examinations in Tanzania to complete the chart below. Foreign students can use similar reports published by the examination boards or councils in their respective countries of origin.
Title of the chart below (code and name of the paper, examination level and year, e.g., 033 Biology for CSEE 2015)

012 HISTORY for CSEE 2014

Section of the subject based NECTA report
Write the summative assessment aspects or messages therein
Write the formative assessment aspects or messages
Missing and that can be included
1. Cover page
Performance of candidates
Examiners report
Understanding  of candidates
2. Foreword
This report provides a descriptive feedback on the summative evaluation carried out in November, 2014. It focuses on identifying and highliting the strength and weaknesses of candidate’s responses in education.
The certificate of Secondary Education Examination is the yardstick for measuring how well or poor the candidates mastered of failed to master the O-level competence standards.
Quality of education with regard to the deep learning of the students.
3. Introduction
It is a comparative report which analyse the candidate performance which compared the students results who sat in 2014 with 2013.
History examination paper assessed the competences as stipulated in the 2005 History Syllabus. Additionally, samples of responses have been extracted from the candidate script to illustrate  relevancy and irrelevancy of their responses.
The result must be about subject content and not about individuals. The subject content should be talking about the strength and weaknesses of understanding and learning a particular subject content and the information must much as possible to avoid grading.
4. Structure of the report or Table of contents
The head if self provide summative message. The term table of contents reflect on the issues that is tottally summative because the main items and sub-items is content based and performative.
There is no formative message.
Table of contents missing the items that can reflect on the learner’s understanding.
5. Analysis of the candidates’ performance per questions
Percentage based assessment where by each question the report showed the markers used to mark, for instance they based on correctness and incorrectness of the answer.
There is no formative message.
In the report did not shown clearly the explanation on about the role of each answer is correct or incorrect and why such particular responses.
6. Analysis of the candidates’ performance in each topic
If is percentage based assessment in each topic. The candidates response per topic characterized by low, middle, high percentage all this are summative aspect of assessment.
To some extent the report provide from the message especially interm of explain, the key causes of the candidates responses per topic.
The report missing the aspect of learning environment, this had larger impact toward meanful learning. Leading environment interms of method of teaching and candidate misconceptions.
7. Conclusion
The first sentence provide summative message through the use of the term average. Apart form that also the third sentence provide summative message by including the term highly scored. The last third sentence of the conclussion also provide summative message by including the term poor performance. Further more the last fourth sentense provide summative message by including the term good performance.
The last sentence of the conclussion provide formative message as it indicate the actual candidates response as well as the clear causes toward that responses.
The conclussion missing the clear solution of improving  learners in understanding as well as learning environment. This two aspect are very important in formative assessment.
8. Recommendations
Teachers to guide the candidates on how to learn in tackling examination questions.
Participation of students in history subject clubs
-         participation in both interclass and interschool debating clubs and essay writing competition.
-         Teachers should teach by using relevant teaching and learning materials coupled with drawings, illustrative examples as well as enough exercises so as to boast the understanding of the candidates.
Teacher should encourage the students to examine everything critically and challenge everything to explore their knowledge on the subject matter.
9. Appendix I:
Comparison on the students performances per topic were it shows topics where performed good average and poor.
Shows the level of students understanding per topic.
Suggestion on how to improve the students learning and understanding which will enable the students to answer questions.
10. Appendix II:
11. Appendix III:

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