What are grammatical categories/parts of speech?

1

Grammatical categories are the class of units and features which share a common set of grammatical properties.

parts of speech is a traditional class of words distinguished according to the kind of idea denoted and the function performed in a sentence. Example, nouns, adverbs, verbs, pronouns.
2.      Employing morphological (i.e inflectional and derivational properties and distributional criteria how would you identify nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs in a sentence? Give examples.

ANSWER
Morphological and distributional criteria are the criteria that are used to show how words are fimutins in a sentence. Words in a sentence has put into this two criteria so as to show how someone would identify parts of speech in a sentence.

i. NOUN
a) By employing morphological properties are would identify noun by looking on derivational and inflectional criteria.

i. derivational criteria
By employing the derivational criteria in English noun often and in derivational ending such as ment, ness, ity, tion.
Example; university student like enjoyment.


ii. Inflectional criteria
Noun in English do not show much inflection but when pluralized can take suffixes such as s(cats), en(oxen), ren (children).
- The cats are best friend of human beings.

iii. By employing the distributional criteria, noun often appear after determiners such as, the, those, these and articles such as a, the and an.
Example; The students protested vehemently

ii. VERBS
These are the parts of speech that show the action that happen, happening or happened in a sentence. Verbs normally comes after a noun in a sentence. There are two ways of identifying verb in a sentence, that are morphological criteria and distributional criteria.

a) Morphological criteria
By employing morphological criteria, one would identify verbs by looking on derivation and inflection properties.

i. Derivational criteria
Verbs are often end in derivational endings such as ate (dissipate) and –ize, ise (popularize, regularize, familiarize)
Example; The Daruso leadership popularize their businesses.

ii. Inflectional properties
In the past tense, verbs usually take an –ed or –t ending but in present tense , third personal singular ( he, she, it) they take a (es) ending. Verb also can take an – ing ending in some aspectual construction (she was walking) and take either an –en or an –ed suffixes when they are passiviezed.
Example; The ice cream was eaten
                 She was walking

b) distributional criteria
Usually verbs can follow auxiliaries and modals such as will, would, can, could, shall, should, is, are, been, being, am. Verbs follow subjects and can follow adverbs such as often and frequently.
Example; They were playing a game
                 She often takes her breakfast at home

iii. ADJECTIVES
these are parts of speech or words that describes or make clear meaning of nouns or pronouns. By employing both morphological criteria and disturb critical criteria one would identify adjective as follows.

a) Morphological criteria
Morphological one would identify adjective by looking and inflectional properties.

i. Derivational properties
One would identify adjectives because they often end in derivational ending such as – ing(the dancig cat), -ive (indicative) –able (readable) –ish (childish) –some (tiresome)
Example; A dancing boy embarrassed the people.

ii. Inflectional properties
usually adjective are accompanied with degree words. Adjective can be inflected into a comparative form using –er, for example, the word ‘more’ which alternatively follow. They can also be inflected into their superlative form using –est (which altenativel follow the word most) example, biggest, tallest.
Example; Asha was the most beautiful girl in our class.

b) Distributional criteria
One would identify adjectives through distributional criteria, because they can appear between determines such as the, a, these etc. and noun like (the big peanut)
Example; The big elephant was killed by soldiers.

iv. ADVERBS
These are the words that modifies or limit the meaning of a verb, an adjective, or another adverb. Adverb can be identified by employing both morphological which comprises with derivational and inflectional properties and distributional criteria.

a) Morphological criteria
By employing morphological criteria, one would identify adverbs by looking on derivational and inflectional properties.

i) Derivational properties
Under this properties one would identify adverbs because many adverbs end in ‘ly’, quickly, slowly, neatly, frequently.
Example; she writes neatly
                 They walks quickly

ii) Inflectional properties
Adverbs generally don’t take any inflectional suffixes, however on rare occasion they can be used comparatively and follow the word more.
Example; She went more quickly than he did.

b) Distributional criteria
The syntactic distribution of adverbs is mostly easily described by stating where they cant appear. Adverbs cant appear between a determiner and a noun or after the verb ‘is’ and its variants.
they can really appear pretty much anywhere else in the sentence although typically, the either appear of the beginning or end of the clause/sentence.
Example; The slowly moving car is ours.
3.      Identify the main parts of speech (i.e nouns, main verbs, adjectives and adverbs) In the following sentences. Treat hyphenated words as a single word.


Sentence
Nouns
Main verbs
Adjectives
Adverbs
a
Belly
Replaced
Old nesty-pot

b
Assistant
vital documents
shredder

Put
Red – haired
New efficient

c
Alligator
Keeper
Description

Complained
Large evil leatheng,
Unattractive

Extremely
d
Chocolate
cake
last piece

eaten


e

student


protested


vehemently


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